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Battle of Banu al-Mustaliq (Hadith No. 2215)

Bismillah.

Ahadith 2213 – 2214 (below) are repeats. Read related posts by following linked text.

Volume 3, Book 46, Number 715:
Narrated Hisham:
My father told me that Hakim bin Hizam (radiallaahu `anhu) manumitted one-hundred slaves in the pre-lslamic period of ignorance and slaughtered one-hundred camels (and distributed them in charity). When he embraced Islam he again slaughtered one-hundred camels and manumitted one-hundred slaves. Hakim (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “I asked Allah’s Apostle, ‘O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! What do you think about some good deeds I used to practice in the pre-lslamic period of ignorance regarding them as deeds of righteousness?’ Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “You have embraced Islam along with all those good deeds you did.

 

Volume 3, Book 46, Number 716:
Narrated Marwan and Al-Miswar bin Makhrama (radiallaahu `anhu):
When the delegates of the tribe of Hawazin came to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and they requested him to return their properties and captives. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) stood up and said to them, “I have other people with me in this matter (as you see) and the most beloved statement to me is the true one; you may choose either the properties or the prisoners as I have delayed their distribution.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had waited for them for more than ten days since his arrival from Ta’if. So, when it became evident to them that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was not going to return them except one of the two, they said, “We choose our prisoners.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) got up amongst the people and glorified and praised Allah as He deserved and said, “Then after, these brethren of yours have come to us with repentance, and I see it logical to return them the captives. So, whoever amongst you likes to do that as a favor, then he can do it, and whoever of you likes to stick to his share till we recompense him from the very first war booty which Allah will give us, then he can do so (i.e. give up the present captives).” The people unanimously said, “We do that (return the captives) willingly.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “We do not know which of you has agreed to it and which have not, so go back and let your leaders forward us your decision.” So, all the people then went back and discussed the matter with their leaders who returned and informed the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) that all the people had willingly given their consent to return the captives. This is what has reached us about the captives of Hawazin. Narrated Anas (radiallaahu `anhu) that ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu) said to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), “I paid for my ransom and Aqil’s ransom.”

Today’s Hadith:

 

Volume 3, Book 46, Number 717:
Narrated Ibn Aun:
I wrote a letter to Nafi and Nafi wrote in reply to my letter that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had suddenly attacked Bani Mustaliq without warning while they were heedless and their cattle were being watered at the places of water. Their fighting men were killed and their women and children were taken as captives; the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) got Juwairiya (radiallaahu `anhaa) on that day. Nafi said that Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) had told him the above narration and that Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) was in that army.

Summary of Events:

The Banu Mustaliq, a clan of the Banu Khuda’a, lived in the Qudayd region located on the coast between Makka and Madina, in a place called Usfan, near the important commercial port of Rabigh. While the Khuda’a tribe, generally speaking, adopted a positive stance towards Islam and Prophet Muhammad, the Banu Mustaliq clan sided with the Quraysh, who were at war with the Muslims, and demonstrated their hostility at every opportunity. During the time in which the Quraysh were making preparations for the Battle of the Trench by mobilizing at their allies, chief of the Banu Mustaliq Harith ibn Abu Dirar had set up his military headquarters at the watering place called Muraysi’ and, inciting the neighboring tribes, had begun gathering troops to attack Madina. Prophet Muhammad sent Burayda bin Husayb al-Aslami to the regions for the purpose of gathering intelligence. Burayda saw firsthand the truth in the news about the preparations of the Mustaliq tribe and returned having acquired accurate information. The Prophet set out on an expedition with a force of 700 men, thirty on horseback, on 2 Sha’ban (27 December 626). Upon seeing his approach with a great force, some of the tribes abandoned enemy lines and deserted the battle field. When the Muslim army reached the Muraysi’ watering place, they invited the tribes to accept Islam. Their responding with arrows which they fired at the Muslims triggered the battle which ended with the assured victory of the Muslims. Among the polytheists, ten were killed, while the remaining 600 or 700 were taken prisoner. A large amount of loot was acquired, including 2000 camels and 5000 sheep. Muslims suffered no losses in this campaign other than Hisham ibn Subaba al-Kalbi, who was mistaken for an enemy soldier. After the battle, the Prophet distributed the war spoils among the Muslims. He sent Abu Naml al-Ta’i to Madina to convey the good news of victory and himself returned to Madina on 1 Ramadan (24 January, 627). It has been suggested that the Banu Mustaliq Campaign, also known as the Muraysi’ Campaign due to the site where it eventuated, may have taken place after the Battle of the Trench.

Among the captives taken from the Banu Mustaliq was Juwayriya bint Harith, daughter of the defeated Banu Mustaliq clan’s chief Harith ibn Abu Dirar. Upon her acceptance of Islam, Prophet Muhammad released her and proposed marriage to her. This marriage eased the hostilities that ensued due to the battle. Seeing that the Banu Mustaliq had now become the Prophet’s relations through marriage, the Muslims released all the captives they held. Such was the effect of this attitude of the Muslims on the Banu Mustaliq that virtually all of them immediately became Muslim; coming to the presence of Prophet Muhammad, tribal chief Harith ibn Abu Dirar also accepted Islam.

Many hyprocrites, such as ‘Abd Allah ibn Ubayy ibn Salul also participated in this battle. On the return from the campaign, tension arose between the Emigrants and the Helpers around a well and was on the verge of escalation with the intervention of the hypocrites. Aware of the situation, and notwithstanding the time of day, Prophet Muhammad immediately ordered his men to march nonstop until noon the following day. Exhausted after such a long and arduous trek, the soldiers did not have the strength even to speak when reaching their resting place, and fell asleep immediately. In this way, the tension that had arisen only a day before completely dissipated. It is narrated that the Qur’anic chapter entitled “The Hypocrites” was revealed due to these events. The hypocrites did not stop when they reached Madina and led the dissension that erupted with the slander against the Prophet’s wife, ‘A’isha, which became known as the ‘Ifk Incident’.

For some more details, read this, or just go through the topic in a book of Seerah, like “The Sealed Nectar”.

Battle of Hunayn (Hadith No. 1999)

Bismillah.

Volume 3, Book 38, Number 503 :
Narrated by Marwan bin Al-Hakam and Al-Miswar bin Makhrama (radiallaahu `anhumaa)
When the delegates of the tribe of Hawazin, after embracing Islam, came to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), he got up. They appealed to him to return their properties and their captives. Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said to them, “The most beloved statement to me is the true one. So, you have the option of restoring your properties or your captives, for I have delayed distributing them.” The narrator added, Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had been waiting for them for more than ten days on his return from Taif. When they realized that Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) would return to them only one of two things, they said, “We choose our captives.” So, Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) got up in the gathering of the Muslims, praised Allah as He deserved, and said, “Then after! These brethren of yours have come to you with repentance and I see it proper to return their captives to them. So, whoever amongst you likes to do that as a favor, then he can do it, and whoever of you wants to stick to his share till we pay him from the very first booty which Allah will give us then he can do so.” The people replied, “We agree to give up our shares willingly as a favor for Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam).” Then Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “We don’t know who amongst you has agreed and who hasn’t. Go back and your chiefs may tell us your opinion.” So, all of them returned and their chiefs discussed the matter with them and then they (i.e. their chiefs) came to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) to tell him that they (i.e. the people) had given up their shares gladly and willingly.

Battle of Hunayn, as described by Ibn Kathir in the tafseer of ayah 25 of Surah at-Tawbah:

The battle of Hunayn occurred after the victory of Makkah, in the month of Shawwal of the eighth year of Hijrah. After the Prophet conquered Makkah and things settled, most of its people embraced Islam and he set them free. News came to the Messenger of Allah that the tribe of Hawazin were gathering their forces to fight him, under the command of Malik bin `Awf An-Nadri, as well as, the entire tribe of Thaqif, the tribes of Banu Jusham, Banu Sa`d bin Bakr, a few people of Awza` from Banu Hilal and some people from Bani `Amr bin `Amir and `Awf bin `Amir. They brought their women, children, sheep and camels along, in addition to their armed forces and adequate supplies. The Messenger of Allah marched to meet them with the army that he brought to conquer Makkah, ten thousand from the Muhajirin, the Ansar and various Arab tribes. Along with them came the Tulaqa’ numbering two thousand men. The Messenger took them along to meet the enemy. The two armies met in Humayn, a valley between Makkah and At-Ta’if. The battle started in the early part of the morning, when the Huwazin forces, who were lying in ambush, descended on the valley when the Muslims entered. Muslims were suddenly struck by the ambush, the arrows descended on them and the swords struck them. The Huwazin commander ordered them to descend and attack the Muslims as one block, and when they did that, the Muslims retreated in haste, just as Allah described them. The Messenger of Allah remained firm in his position while riding his mule, Ash-Shahba’. He was leading his mule towards the enemy, while his uncle Al-`Abbas was holding its right-hand rope and ﴿his cousin﴾ Abu Sufyan bin Al-Harith bin `Abdul-Muttalib was holding the left rope. They tried to hold the mule back so it would not run faster toward the enemy. Meanwhile, the Messenger of Allah was declaring his name aloud and saying,

«إِلَيَّ عِبَادَ اللهِ إِلَيَ أَنَا رَسُولُ الله»

(O servants of Allah! Come back to me! I am the Messenger of Allah! He repeated these words,

«أَنَا النَّبِيُّ لَاكَذِبْ. أَنَا ابْنُ عَبْدِالْمُطَّلِب»

(I am the Prophet, not lying! I am the son of Abdul-Muttalib!) There remained between a hundred and eighty Companions with the Prophet . These included Abu Bakr, `Umar, Al-`Abbas, `Ali, Al-Fadl bin `Abbas, Abu Sufyan bin Al-Harith, Ayman the son of Umm Ayman and Usamah bin Zayd. There were many other Companions, may Allah be pleased with them. The Prophet commanded his uncle Al-`Abbas, whose voice was rather loud, to call at the top of his voice, “O Companions of the Samurah ﴿tree﴾” referring to the Muhajirin and Ansar who gave their pledge under the tree during the pledge of Ridwan, not to run away and retreat. He also called, “O Companions of Surat Al-Baqarah.” Upon hearing that, those heralded started saying, “Here we are! Here we are!” Muslims started returning in the direction of the Messenger of Allah . If the camel of one of them did not obey him (as the people were rushing to the other direction in flight) he would wear his shield and descend from his camel and rush to the side of the Messenger of Allah on foot. When a large crowd gathered around the Messenger of Allah , he commanded them to fight in sincerity and took a handful of sand and threw it in the faces of the disbelievers, after supplicating to Allah,

«أللّهُمَّ أَنْجِزْ لِي مَا وَعَدْتَنِي»

(O Allah! Fulfill Your promise to me!) Then he threw that handful of sand which entered the eyes and mouth of all the disbelievers, thus distracting them from fighting, and they retreated in defeat. The Muslims pursued the enemy, killing and capturing them. The rest of the Muslim army (returning to battle gradually) rejoined their positions and found many captured disbelieving soldiers kept tied before the Messenger of Allah . In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Shu`bah said that Abu Ishaq said that Al-Bara’ bin `Azib said to a man who asked him, “O Abu `Amarah! Did you run away during Hunayn and leave the Messenger of Allah ” Al-Bara’ said, “But the Messenger of Allah did not run away. Hawazin was a tribe proficient with their arrows. When we met them we attacked their forces and they ran away in defeat. The Muslims started to worry about collecting the spoils of war and the Hawazin started shooting arrows at us, then the Muslims fled. I saw the Messenger of Allah proclaiming, — while Abu Sufyan was holding the bridle of his white mule,

«أَنَا النَّبِيُّ لَاكَذِبْ أَنَا ابْنُ عَبْدِالْمُطَّلِب»

(I am the Prophet, not lying, I am the son of `Abdul- Muttalib!) This shows the great courage on behalf of the Prophet in the midst of confusion, when his army ran away and left him behind. Yet, the Messenger remained on his mule, which is a slow animal, not suitable for fast battle moves or even escape. Yet, the Messenger of Allah was encouraging his mule to move forward towards the enemy announcing who he was, so that those among them who did not know who he was came to know him. May Allah’s peace and blessings be on the Messenger until the Day of Resurrection. This indicates the tremendous trust in Allah and reliance upon Him, as well as, sure knowledge that He will give him victory, complete what He has sent him for and give prominence to his religion above all other religions. Allah said,

﴿ثُمَّ أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ سَكِينَتَهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ﴾

(Then Allah did send down His Sakinah on His Messenger), He sent down tranquillity and reassurance to His Messenger,

﴿وَعَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ﴾

(and on the believers), who remained with him,

﴿وَأَنزَلَ جُنُوداً لَّمْ تَرَوْهَا﴾

(and sent down forces which you saw not, ) this refers to angels. Imam Abu Ja`far bin Jarir ﴿At-Tabari﴾ said that Al-Qasim narrated to them, that Al-Hasan bin `Arafah said that Al-Mu`tamir bin Sulayman said from `Awf bin Abi Jamilah Al-`Arabi who said that he heard `Abdur-Rahman, the freed slave of Ibn Barthan saying, “A man who participated in Hunayn with the idolators narrated to me, `When we met the Messenger of Allah and his Companions on the day of Hunayn, they did not remain in battle more than the time it takes to milk a sheep! When we defeated them, we pursued them until we ended at the rider of the white mule, the Messenger of Allah . At that time, men with white handsome faces intercepted us and said: `Disgraced be the faces! Go back. So we ran away, but they followed us. That was the end for us.”’ Allah said,

﴿ثُمَّ يَتُوبُ اللَّهُ مِن بَعْدِ ذَلِكَ عَلَى مَن يَشَآءُ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ ﴾

(Then after that Allah will accept the repentance of whom He wills. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) Allah forgave the rest of Huwazin when they embraced Islam and went to the Prophet , before he arrived at Makkah in the Ji`ranah area. This occurred twenty days after the battle of Hunayn. The Messenger gave them the choice between taking those who were prisoner or the war spoils they lost, and they chose the former. The Prophet released six thousand prisoners to them, but divided the war spoils between the victors, such as some of the Tulaqa’, so that their hearts would be inclined towards Islam. He gave each of them a hundred camels, and the same to Malik bin `Awf An-Nasri whom he appointed chief of his people (Huwazin) as he was before. Malik bin `Awf said a poem in which he praised the Messenger of Allah for his generosity and extraordinary courage.

Detailed story:

Your Real Job As A Muslim (Hadith No. 451)

Salam,
Bismillah.

Read this Hadith, and carefully!

Volume 1, Book 8, Number 451:

Narrated Abu Huraira:

The Prophet sent some horsemen to Najd and they brought a man called Thumama bin Uthal from Bani Hanifa. They fastened him to one of the pillars of the mosque. The Prophet came and ordered them to release him. He went to a (garden of) date-palms near the mosque, took a bath and entered the mosque again and said, “None has the right to be worshipped but Allah an Muhammad is His Apostle (i.e. he embraced Islam).”

Background: Thumama was a captive. When an enemy is captured, you can basically do anything you want with them. Companions had intended to teach him a lesson, at least. So they tied him up to one of the pillars of the mosque. But Prophet (SAW) released him despite having the upper hand. Seems crazy apparently. But the results prove otherwise.

Seeing Prophet (SAW) character, Thumama accepted Islam. Yes, character was the only reason.

O you who claim to follow the Prophet (SAW), your real job as a Muslim is to BE the best Muslim. Be the best father, the best brother, the best husband, leader, Imaam etc. in light of the Seerah of Muhammad (SAW). When you’re playing your part, you’re automatically inviting people to Islam. This, brothers and sisters, is called silent Da’wah. We all need to get better at this inshaAllah.

Reminds me of a recent talk Nouman Ali Khan gave stressing on the same point:

Ready to be the best? Take out a book on Seerah and start reading!
(Personal favorite is: Muhammad (SAW) his life based on the earliest sources by Martin Lings)

Wassalam.

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