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`Abbad Ibn Bishr [radiallaahu `anhu] (Hadith No. 2321)

Bismillah.
Volume 3, Book 48, Number 823:

Narrated ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) heard a man (reciting Quran) in the Mosque, and he said, “May Allah bestow His Mercy upon him. No doubt, he made me remember such-and such Verses of such-and-such Sura which I dropped (from my memory).

Narrated Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa): The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) performed the Tahajjud prayer in my house, and then he heard the voice of ‘Abbad who was praying in the Mosque, and said, “O ‘Aisha! Is this ‘Abbad’s voice?” I said, “Yes.” He said, “O Allah! Be merciful to ‘Abbad!”

It is said that ‘Abbad (radiallaahu`anhu) was known for his love of Quran and his beautiful recitation. And see how even the Prophet of Allah (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) is praising him and praying for him.
There are accounts of his life but I haven’t been able to identify the sources. Read up on him for true inspiration here.

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False Witness (Ahadith 2319 – 2320)

Bismillah.

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 821 :
Narrated by Anas (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was asked about the great sins He said, “They are:- (1 ) To join others in worship with Allah, (2) To be undutiful to one’s parents. (3) To kill a person (which Allah has forbidden to kill) (i.e. to commit the crime of murdering). (4) And to give a false witness.”

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 822 :
Narrated by Abu Bakra (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said thrice, “Should I inform you out the greatest of the great sins?” They said, “Yes, O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)!” He said, “To join others in worship with Allah and to be undutiful to one’s parents.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) then sat up after he had been reclining (on a pillow) and said, “And I warn you against giving a false witness”, and he kept on saying that warning till we thought he would not stop.

There’s mention of false witness in the Quran as well:

وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَشْهَدُونَ الزُّورَ

“And [they are] those who do not testify to falsehood..” [Al-Furqan: 72]

Ibn Kathir comments:

These are further attributes of the servants of the Most Gracious. They do not bear witness to falsehood, including lies, immorality, disbelief, foul speech and false words…

“And those who do not bear witness to falsehood” refers to giving false testimony, which means lying deliberately to someone else…

From the context it seems that what is meant by those who do not bear witness to falsehood is those who do not attend it or are not present when it happens.

The above ayah talks about false witness, which is a major sin. Allah also talks about hiding witness/testimony in the Quran:

وَلَا تَكْتُمُوا الشَّهَادَةَ ۚ وَمَن يَكْتُمْهَا فَإِنَّهُ آثِمٌ قَلْبُهُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ عَلِيمٌ

“And do not conceal testimony, for whoever conceals it – his heart is indeed sinful, and Allah is Knowing of what you do.” [Al-Baqarah: 283]

Ibn Kathir comments:

Allah’s statement,

﴿وَلاَ تَكْتُمُواْ الشَّهَـدَةَ﴾

(And conceal not the evidence) means, do not hide it or refuse to announce it. Ibn `Abbas and other scholars said, “False testimony is one of the worst of the major sins, and such is the case with hiding the true testimony.” This is why Allah said,

﴿وَمَن يَكْتُمْهَا فَإِنَّهُ ءَاثِمٌ قَلْبُهُ﴾

(For he who hides it, surely, his heart is sinful).

As-Suddi commented, “Meaning he is a sinner in his heart.”

This is similar to Allah’s statement,

﴿وَلاَ نَكْتُمُ شَهَـدَةَ اللَّهِ إِنَّآ إِذَاً لَّمِنَ الاٌّثِمِينَ﴾

(We shall not hide testimony of Allah, for then indeed we should be of the sinful) ﴿5:106﴾.

Allah said,

﴿يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ كُونُواْ قَوَّامِينَ بِالْقِسْطِ شُهَدَآءِ للَّهِ وَلَوْ عَلَى أَنفُسِكُمْ أَوِ الْوَلِدَيْنِ وَالاٌّقْرَبِينَ إِن يَكُنْ غَنِيّاً أَوْ فَقَيراً فَاللَّهُ أَوْلَى بِهِمَا فَلاَ تَتَّبِعُواْ الْهَوَى أَن تَعْدِلُواْ وَإِن تَلْوُواْ أَوْ تُعْرِضُواْ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيراً ﴾

(O you who believe! Stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to Allah, even though it be against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, be he rich or poor, Allah is a better Protector to both (than you). So follow not the lusts (of your hearts), lest you avoid justice; and if you distort your witness or refuse to give it, verily, Allah is Ever Well-Acquainted with what you do) ﴿ 4:135

P.S. We have talked previously about a similar subject: false oaths.

Best of Mankind (Ahadith 2317 – 2318)

Bismillah.

Hadith no. 2316 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 818 :
Narrated by An-Nu’man bin Bashir (radiallaahu `anhu)
My mother asked my father to present me a gift from his property; and he gave it to me after some hesitation. My mother said that she would not be satisfied unless the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was made a witness to it. I being a young boy, my father held me by the hand and took me to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam). He said to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), “His mother, bint Rawaha, requested me to give this boy a gift.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Do you have other sons besides him?” He said, “Yes.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Do not make me a witness for injustice.” Narrated Ash-Shabi that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “I will not become a witness for injustice.”

Today’s Ahadith:

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 819 :
Narrated by Zahdam bin Mudrab
I heard Imran bin Husain (radiallaahu `anhu) saying, “The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, ‘The best people are those living in my generation, then those coming after them, and then those coming after (the second generation).” Imran said “I do not know whether the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) mentioned two or three generations after your present generation. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) added, ‘There will be some people after you, who will be dishonest and will not be trustworthy and will give witness (evidences) without being asked to give witness, and will vow but will not fulfill their vows, and fatness will appear among them.”

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 820 :
Narrated by Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “The people of my generation are the best, then those who follow them, and then whose who follow the latter. After that there will come some people whose witness will go ahead of their oaths, and their oaths will go ahead of their witness.” Ibrahim (a sub-narrator) said, “We used to be beaten for taking oaths by saying, ‘I bear witness by the Name of Allah or by the Covenant of Allah.”

Allah has extolled the virtues of the Companions of the Prophet (saw) many places in the Qur’an. A Companion is defined as one who met the Prophet (saw) in a state of belief and who died in that state. Allah said (after mentioning some of the hypocrites who stayed behind from Jihad):

{Rather, the Prophet and those who believe with him fought with their property and their lives for these are all good things, they are the successful ones and Allah has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flow therein forever and that is the great success.} At-Tauba: 88-89

Allah’s praise of the Companions also extends to all those who follow their way. Allah said:

{The forerunners those who came first among the Migrators and the Helpers and those who followed them with the best. Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him and Allah has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flow therein forever and that is the great success.} At-Tauba: 100

The best generations of all time are: the generation of the Prophet (saw) i.e., the Companions, those who followed them (at-taabi’een) and the ones who followed those (atbaa’ at-taabi’een). They are our best example. When we doubt whether a certain practice or belief is a prohibited bid’a or a valid interpretation and a good practice in the din, we simply have to look at these generations. If it is in the area of worship and they did not practice it or anything similar to it, or they openly condemned it then we know with certainty that it is not part if Islam and is the bid’a which Allah and His Prophet (saw) have absolutely forbidden.

The word for “generation” is qarn. Nowadays, this word is used to mean “century”. There are three interpretations of the word in this hadith:

  1. One hundred years. There are several hadith narrated in which the Prophet (saw) said that someone will reach “qarn” and then other reports state that that person lived to 100 years. There are differences as to this last point, however.

  2. The people of a particular time who were together in a certain affair – such as under a particular prophet or leader.

  3. That the “qarn” of the Prophet (saw) is the Companions, the next one is the Followers (taabi’een) and the third one is their Followers.

Notice that the last two are pretty similar. The third one is the best in terms of the meaning of this hadith. So the generation of the Companions lasted until the last of them passed away and likewise the two generations after them.

The scholars have agreed that the last of the those who followed those who followed lived to around 220 years. After that time, all sorts of innovations appeared and many of the deviant sects began. The Mu’tazilah spoke out loudly and widely and the philosophers raised their heads. The people of knowledge were tested by being forced to say that the Qur’an was created. In short, things changed very drastically and things have remained deficient ever since.

The only protection for this Ummah is to stick to the way of the Companions and the first generations.

Abi Burda reports from his father: “We prayed Maghrib with Allah’s Messenger (saw) then we said: Why not sit until we pray Isha with him? And so we sat and the Prophet (saw) came out to us and said: “Are you still here?” We said: “O Allah’s Messenger we prayed Maghrig with you and we decided to sit here until we pray Isha with you.” He said: “You have done well.” Then, he raised his head toward the heavens – and he used to do that frequently – and said: “The stars are the protection for the sky – when the stars have gone, that which has been forewarned will come to the sky. I am the protection for my Companions – when I have gone, that which has been forewarned will come to my companions. My Companions are the protection for this Ummah – when they have gone, that which has been forewarned will come to this Ummah.” (Muslim)

Taken mostly from: http://www.java-man.com/pages/BestGenerations/BestGenerations.html

Read more on the virtues of Sahaba here.

Testimony of a Sinner (Ahadith 2314 – 2315)

Bismillah.

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 816 :
Narrated by ‘Urwa bin Az-Zubair (radiallaahu `anhu)
A woman committed theft in the Ghazwa of the Conquest (of Mecca) and she was taken to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) who ordered her hand to be cut off. ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) said, “Her repentance was perfect and she was married (later) and used to come to me (after that) and I would present her needs to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam).”

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 817 :
Narrated by Zaid bin Khalid (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) ordered that an unmarried man who committed illegal sexual intercourse be scourged one hundred lashes and sent into exile for one year.

Can the testimony of a sinner be accepted?

In case of slander, Allah has prescribed three punishments. They are: the hadd punishment; rejection of testimony; and describing the slanderer as an evildoer (Faasiq). Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And those who accuse chaste women, and produce not four witnesses, flog them with eighty stripes, and reject their testimony forever. They indeed are the Faasiqoon (liars, rebellious, disobedient to Allaah). Except those who repent thereafter and do righteous deeds; (for such) verily, Allaah is Oft‑Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [al-Noor 24:4-5].

With regard to the hadd punishment, the fuqaha’ are unanimously agreed that the hadd punishment for slander is eighty lashes if the slanderer is a free person [i.e., not a slave], man or woman, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“flog them with eighty stripes” [al-Noor 24:4].

As for his testimony not being accepted, the scholars are unanimously agreed that the testimony of the slanderer should not be accepted so long as he has not repented, because he has committed a major sin, namely slander, and has not repented from it, so he cannot be described as being of good character, and good character is a condition of testimony being accepted; and because he is a liar and an evildoer according to the text of the verse: “They indeed are the Faasiqoon (liars, rebellious, disobedient to Allaah).

“Why did they not produce four witnesses? Since they (the slanderers) have not produced witnesses! Then with Allaah they are the liars” [al-Noor 24:13].

The testimony of the evildoer and liar cannot be accepted, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And take as witness two just persons from among you (Muslims)” [al-Talaaq 65:2]. So it is stipulated that the witness should be of good character, and the evildoer and liar are not of good character.

If he repents from slander and admits that he was lying, then the majority of scholars (Maalik, al-Shaafa’i and Ahmad) are of the view that his testimony may be accepted. They said:

1.     Because repentance erases the sins that came before it, so if he repents his sin and its effects are erased completely, and non-acceptance of testimony is one of the effects of that sin.

Imam al-Shaafa’i said in al-Umm (7/94):

If he admits that he lied, his testimony may then be accepted, but if he does not do that then his testimony cannot be accepted, until he does that, because the sin for which his testimony is rejected is slander, but if he admits that he was lying then he has repented. End quote.

2.     Because the expression “forever” in the verse applies so long as he persists in evildoing. Hence after that the verse mentions after the ruling that he is an evildoer: “and reject their testimony forever. They indeed are the Faasiqoon (liars, rebellious, disobedient to Allaah).” If the description of evildoer ceases to apply to him, then the reason for rejecting his testimony also ceases to exist.

3.     It was narrated from ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) that he said to those who had slandered al-Mugheerah ibn Shu’bah, after he had carried out the hadd punishment of flogging on them: “Whoever repents, his testimony will be accepted.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari in a mu’allaq majzoom report.

His repentance means that he admits that he was lying about the slandered person whom he accused of zina. Hence the words of ‘Umar according to Ibn Jareer were, “Whoever admits that he was lying, his testimony will be accepted.”

If the slanderer repents and mends his ways, his testimony will be accepted, like any other Muslim of good character.

Al-Mughni (12/386); al-Majmoo’ (22/98-101).

Taken from IslamQA

Foster Relationships (Ahadith 2310 – 2313)

Bismillah.

Ahadith 2308 – 2309 (below) are repeats. Read them here.

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 810 :
Narrated by Anas (radiallaahu `anhu)
A funeral procession passed in front of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and the people praised the deceased. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “It has been affirmed (Paradise).” Then another funeral procession passed by and the people talked badly of the deceased. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “It has been affirmed (Hell).” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was asked, “O Allah’s Apostle! You said it has been affirmed for both?” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “The testimony of the people (is accepted), (for) the believer are Allah’s witnesses on the earth.”

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 811 :
Narrated by Abu Al-Aswad
Once I went to Medina where there was an outbreak of disease and the people were dying rapidly. I was sitting with ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) and a funeral procession passed by. The people praised the deceased. ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “It has been affirmed” (Paradise). Then another funeral procession passed by. The people praised the deceased. ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “It has been affirmed.” (Paradise). Then another funeral procession passed by. The people praised the deceased. ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “It has been affirmed (Paradise).” Then a third funeral procession passed by and the people talked badly of the deceased. ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “It has been affirmed (Hell).” I asked Umar (radiallaahu `anhu), “O chief of the believers! What has been affirmed?” He said, “I have said what the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said. He said, ‘Allah will admit into paradise any Muslim whose good character is attested by four persons.’ We asked the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), ‘If there were three witnesses only?’ He said, ‘Even three.’ We asked, ‘If there were two only?’ He said, ‘Even two.’ But we did not ask him about one witness.”

Today’s Ahadith:

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 812 :
Narrated by Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa)
Aflah asked the permission to visit me but I did not allow him. He said, “Do you veil yourself before me although I am your uncle?” ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) said, “How is that?” Aflah replied, “You were suckled by my brother’s wife with my brother’s milk.” I asked Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) about it, and he said, “Aflah is right, so permit him to visit you.”

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 813 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said about Hamza’s daughter, “I am not legally permitted to marry her, as foster relations are treated like blood relations (in marital affairs). She is the daughter of my foster brother.”

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 814 :
Narrated by Amra bint ‘Abdur-Rahman
That ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) the wife of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) told her uncle that once, while the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was in her house, she heard a man asking Hafsa’s (radiallaahu `anhaa) permission to enter her house. ‘Aisha said, “I said, ‘O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! I think the man is Hafsa’s foster uncle.’ ” ‘Aisha added, “O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! There is a man asking the permission to enter your house.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) replied, “I think the man is Hafsa’s foster uncle.” ‘Aisha said, “If so-and-so were living (i.e. her foster uncle) would he be allowed to visit me?” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Yes, he would, as the foster relations are treated like blood relations (in marital affairs).”

Volume 3, Book 48, Number 815 :
Narrated by Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa)
Once the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) came to me while a man was in my house. He said, “O ‘Aisha! Who is this (man)?” I replied, “My foster brothers” He said, “O ‘Aisha! Be sure about your foster brothers, as foster-ship is only valid if it takes place in the suckling period (before two years of age).”

There are two conditions for breastfeeding and foster relationship to be valid:

1. It should be five or more breastfeedings, because of the hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) who said: “Among the things that were revealed of the Qur’aan was that ten definite breastfeedings make a person a mahram, then that was abrogated and replaced with five definite breastfeedings,” Narrated by Muslim, no. 1452.

2. That should be within the first two years of the child’s life, because of what is proven from the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) in the hadeeth of ‘Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr, that the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “There is no breastfeeding except that which fills the stomach.” Narrated by Ibn Maajah (1946); see also Saheeh al-Jaami‘, no. 7495. al-Bukhaari (may Allah have mercy on him) said in his Saheeh: “Chapter: One who says: There is no breastfeeding after two years because Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): ‘The mothers shall give suck to their children for two whole years, (that is) for those (parents) who desire to complete the term of suckling’ [al-Baqarah 2:233]”.

Breastfeeding means that the infant takes the nipple and suckles from it, then lets it go by himself, in order to breathe or move and the like. Based on that, the five breastfeedings may take place in one sitting.

The shar’i rulings concerning relationships through breastfeeding are not the same as the rulings concerning relationships through blood ties. Breastfeeding (radaa’ah) does not mean that one is obliged to spend on those relatives, or that one is entitled to inherit from them, or that one may be a guardian for the purpose of marriage – unlike the case with ties of blood.

What they have in common is that people related in either way are forbidden to marry, and may look at one another and be alone with one another, and are regarded as mahrams for the purpose of travel. Read more on this here.

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