Volume 4, Book 52, Number 309 :
Narrated by Abaya bin Rifaa
My grandfather, Rafi (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “We were in the company of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) at DhulHulaifa, and the people suffered from hunger. We got some camels and sheep (as booty) and the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was still behind the people. They hurried and put the cooking pots on the fire. (When he came) he ordered that the cooking pots should be upset and then he distributed the booty (amongst the people) regarding ten sheep as equal to one camel then a camel fled and the people chased it till they got tired, as they had a few horses (for chasing it). So a man threw an arrow at it and caused it to stop (with Allah’s Permission). On that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, ‘Some of these animals behave like wild beasts, so, if any animal flee from you, deal with it in the same way.” My grandfather asked (the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)), “We hope (or are afraid) that we may meet the enemy tomorrow and we have no knives. Can we slaughter our animals with canes?” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) replied, “If the instrument used for killing causes the animal to bleed profusely and if Allah’s Name is mentioned on killing it, then eat its meat (i.e. it is lawful) but won’t use a tooth or a nail and I am telling you the reason: A tooth is a bone (and slaughtering with a bone is forbidden ), and a nail is the slaughtering instrument of the Ethiopians.”
In a past post, the proper Islamic etiquette of slaughtering an animal was discussed in detail, from saying Bismillah in the beginning to sharpening the blade and being kind to the animal. This hadith discusses the “instrument” used to slaughter the animal. It’s apparent and obvious that bones and nails are prohibited. And whatever is used other than that must cause the animal to bleed profusely.
Having said that, there’s a lot of confusion about saying Bismillah when using modern methods (i.e. machines) to slaughter chickens, whether to say it every time a chicken is slaughtered or to say it once before turning on the machine. A question is recorded in Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa’imah:
Is it permissible to say “Bismillah” when operating the machine which does one repeated movement. Please note that what is meant is saying “Bismillah” only once, when starting the machine for slaughter.
Answer: it is acceptable for the person who is operating the machine to say “Bismillah” once when starting it for a number of (chickens) with the intention of slaughtering them, so long as the one who is operating it is a Muslim or a Jew or a Christian.
‘Abdullah ibn Ghadyaan, ‘Abd ar-Razaaq ‘Afeefi, ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Baaz. End quote.
More about stunning animals, saying Bismillah once or repeatedly and other related discussion here.
Hadith no. 2164 (below) is a repeat, read it here.
Volume 3, Book 44, Number 667:
Narrated Anas (radiallaahu `anhu):
that Abu Bakr As-Siddiq (radiallaahu `anhu) wrote to him the law of Zakat which was made obligatory by Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam). He wrote: ‘Partners possessing joint property (sheep) have to pay its Zakat equally.
Volume 3, Book 44, Number 668:
Narrated ‘Abaya bin Rafa’a bin Rafi’ bin Khadij:
My grandfather said, “We were in the company of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) at Dhul-Hulaifa. The people felt hungry and captured some camels and sheep (as booty). The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was behind the people. They hurried and slaughtered the animals and put their meat in pots and started cooking it. (When the Prophet came) he ordered the pots to be upset and then he distributed the animals (of the booty), regarding ten sheep as equal to one camel. One of the camels fled and the people ran after it till they were exhausted. At that time there were few horses. A man threw an arrow at the camel, and Allah stopped the camel with it. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Some of these animals are like wild animals, so if you lose control over one of these animals, treat it in this way (i.e. shoot it with an arrow).” Before distributing them among the soldiers my grandfather said, “We may meet the enemies in the future and have no knives; can we slaughter the animals with reeds?” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Use whatever causes blood to flow, and eat the animals if the name of Allah has been mentioned on slaughtering them. Do not slaughter with teeth or fingernails and I will tell you why: It is because teeth are bones (i.e. cannot cut properly) and fingernails are the tools used by the Ethiopians (whom we should not imitate for they are infidels).”
Narrated Ibn Juraij:
‘Ata’ said, “I heard Jabir bin ‘Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu) saying, ‘We never ate the meat of the Budn for more than three days of Mina. Later, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) gave us permission by saying: ‘Eat and take (meat) with you. So we ate (some) and took (some) with us.’ ” I asked ‘Ata’, “Did Jabir (radiallaahu `anhu) say (that they went on eating the meat) till they reached Medina?” ‘Ata’ replied, “No.”
I heard ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) saying, “We set out (from Medina) along with Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) five days before the end of Dhul-Qa’da with the intention of performing Hajj only. When we approached Mecca, Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) ordered those who had no Hadi along with them to finish the lhram after performing Tawaf of the Ka’ba, (Safa and Marwa). ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) added, “Beef was brought to us on the Day of Nahr and I said, ‘What is this?’ Somebody said, ‘The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) has slaughtered (cows) on behalf of his wives.’ “
This Hadith has been discussed before as well. Read it here.
Both these Ahadith give evidence that it’s okay to eat from the animal you sacrifice. Rather, it’s Sunnah. Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) encouraged companions to do so (as in the first Hadith), and sent some for his wives (as in the second Hadith). So eat from the meat whenever an animal is sacrificed (Eid/aqeeqah/Hajj etc.).
Narrated ‘Ali (radiallaahu `anhu):
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) offered one hundred Budn as Hadi and ordered me to distribute their meat (in charity) and I did so. Then he ordered me to distribute their covering sheets in charity and I did so. Then he ordered me to distribute their skins in charity and I did so.
100 camels. Their meat, skins, everything was given in charity. Unbelievable! Who would do that?!
If you think about it, one camel can suffice seven families. So he gave in charity what would’ve been enough for 700 families (they would divide it further for use at home and giving in charity). He gave it all away. SubhanAllah, what a wise man! He always preferred the `aysh (life) of the Aakhirah over this life. And what is charity but a ticket to Jannah?
You possess only what will not be lost in a shipwreck.
As for the fiqh of it, we’ve already discussed in one of the previous posts that portions for charity/family etc. are not fixed for sacrificial animals. Ratio can be varied according to need.