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Killer Takes All (Hadith No. 2767)

Bismillah.

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 370 :
Narrated by Abu Qatada (radiallaahu `anhu)
We set out in the company of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) on the day (of the battle) of Hunain. When we faced the enemy, the Muslims retreated and I saw a pagan throwing himself over a Muslim. I turned around and came upon him from behind and hit him on the shoulder with the sword. He (i.e. the pagan) came towards me and seized me so violently that I felt as if it were death itself, but death overtook him and he released me. I followed ‘Umar bin Al Khattab (radiallaahu `anhu) and asked (him), “What is wrong with the people (fleeing)?” He replied, “This is the Will of Allah,” After the people returned, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) sat and said, “Anyone who has killed an enemy and has a proof of that, will posses his spoils.” I got up and said, “Who will be a witness for me?” and then sat down. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) again said, “Anyone who has killed an enemy and has proof of that, will possess his spoils.” I (again) got up and said, “Who will be a witness for me?” and sat down. Then the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said the same for the third time. I again got up, and Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “O Abu Qatada! What is your story?” Then I narrated the whole story to him. A man (got up and) said, “O Allah’s Apostle! He is speaking the truth, and the spoils of the killed man are with me. So please compensate him on my behalf.” On that Abu Bakr As-Siddiq (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “No, by Allah, he (i.e. Allah’s Apostle ) will not agree to give you the spoils gained by one of Allah’s Lions who fights on the behalf of Allah and His Apostle.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Abu Bakr has spoken the truth.” So, Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) gave the spoils to me. I sold that armor (i.e. the spoils) and with its price I bought a garden at Bani Salima, and this was my first property which I gained after my conversion to Islam.

Steel_Plate_Cuirass

[Source: Google Images]

Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) only agreed to give Abu Qatada (radiallaahu `anhu) the spoils of the killed man when someone else testified for him. So we learn two things:

  1. Killer gets the spoils of the killed (not compensation.. actual belongings).
  2. Killer needs proof to obtain spoils. In Abu Qatada’s (radiallaahu `anhu) case, it was another man’s testimony.
Further reading: www.muslimtents.com/shaufi/b17/b176.htm
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The Boys who Killed Abu Jahl (Hadith No. 2766)

Bismillah.

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 369 :
Narrated by ‘Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Auf (radiallaahu `anhu)
While I was standing in the row on the day (of the battle) of Badr, I looked to my right and my left and saw two young Ansari boys, and I wished I had been stronger than they. One of them called my attention saying, “O Uncle! Do you know Abu Jahl?” I said, “Yes, What do you want from him, O my nephew?” He said, “I have been informed that he abuses Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam). By Him in Whose Hands my life is, if I should see him, then my body will not leave his body till either of us meet his fate.” I was astonished at that talk. Then the other boy called my attention saying the same as the other had said. After a while I saw Abu Jahl walking amongst the people. I said (to the boys), “Look! This is the man you asked me about.” So, both of them attacked him with their swords and struck him to death and returned to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) to inform him of that. Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked, “Which of you has killed him?” Each of them said, “I have killed him.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked, “Have you cleaned your swords?” They said, “No.” He then looked at their swords and said, “No doubt, you both have killed him and the spoils of the deceased will be given to Muadh bin Amr bin Al-Jamuh.” The two boys were Muadh bin ‘Afra and Muadh bin Amr bin Al-Jamuh (radiallaahu `anhumaa).

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Why did the Prophet give spoils to only one of the boys when he said, “no doubt, you both have killed him”? Commentators say that the one who got the spoils was the actual killer as his sword proved it (more blood) while the other was appreciated for his efforts and help.

Khumus: One-fifth of Booty (Ahadith 2723 – 2724)

Bismillah.

Ahadith 2717 – 2722 (below) are repeats. See linked text for related posts.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 320 :
Narrated by Jabir bin ‘Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu)
I was on a journey in the company of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and when we reached Medina, he said to me, “Enter the Mosque and offer two Rakat.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 321 :
Narrated by Ka’b (radiallaahu `anhu)
Whenever the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) returned from a journey in the forenoon, he would enter the Mosque and offer two Rakat before sitting.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 322 :
Narrated by Muharib bin Dithar
Jabir bin ‘Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “When Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) arrived at Medina, he slaughtered a camel or a cow.” Jabir (radiallaahu `anhu) added, “The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) bought a camel from me for two Uqiyas (of gold) and one or two Dirhams. When he reached Sirar, he ordered that a cow be slaughtered and they ate its meat. When he arrived at Medina, he ordered me to go to the Mosque and offer two Rakat, and weighed (and gave) me the price of the camel.”

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 323 :
Narrated by Jabir (radiallaahu `anhu)
Once I returned from a journey and the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said (to me) “Offer two Rakat.” (Sirar is a place near Medina).

Kitaab-ul-Jihaad [Book of Fighting for the Cause of Allah] ends here.

Kitaab Fard-ul-Khumus [Book of One-Fifth of Booty (to the Cause of Allah)] starts today..

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 324 :
Narrated by Ali (radiallaahu `anhu)
I got a she-camel in my share of the war booty on the day (of the battle) of Badr, and the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had given me a she-camel from the Khumus. When I intended to marry Fatima (radiallaahu `anhaa), the daughter of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), I had an appointment with a goldsmith from the tribe of Bani Qainuqa’ to go with me to bring Idhkhir (i.e. grass of pleasant smell) and sell it to the goldsmiths and spend its price on my wedding party. I was collecting for my she-camels equipment of saddles, sacks and ropes while my two she-camels were kneeling down beside the room of an Ansari man. I returned after collecting whatever I collected, to see the humps of my two she-camels cut off and their flanks cut open and some portion of their livers was taken out. When I saw that state of my two she-camels, I could not help weeping. I asked, “Who has done this?” The people replied, “Hamza bin Abdul Muttalib (radiallaahu `anhu) who is staying with some Ansari drunks in this house.” I went away till I reached the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and Zaid bin Haritha (radiallaahu `anhu) was with him. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) noticed on my face the effect of what I had suffered, so the Prophet asked. “What is wrong with you.” I replied, “O Allah’s Apostle! I have never seen such a day as today. Hamza (radiallaahu `anhu) attacked my two she-camels, cut off their humps, and ripped open their flanks, and he is sitting there in a house in the company of some drunks.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) then asked for his covering sheet, put it on, and set out walking followed by me and Zaid bin Haritha (radiallaahu `anhu) till he came to the house where Hamza (radiallaahu `anhu) was. He asked permission to enter, and they allowed him, and they were drunk. Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) started rebuking Hamza for what he had done, but Hamza was drunk and his eyes were red. Hamza (radiallaahu `anhu) looked at Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and then he raised his eyes, looking at his knees, then he raised up his eyes looking at his umbilicus, and again he raised up his eyes look in at his face. Hamza (radiallaahu `anhu) then said, “Aren’t you but the slaves of my father?” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) realized that he was drunk, so Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) retreated, and we went out with him.

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 325 :
Narrated by ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) (mother of the believers)
After the death of Allah ‘s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), Fatima (radiallaahu `anhaa) the daughter of Allah’s Apostle asked Abu Bakr As-Siddiq (radiallaahu `anhu) to give her, her share of inheritance from what Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had left of the Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting) which Allah had given him. Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) said to her, “Allah’s Apostle said, ‘Our property will not be inherited, whatever we (i.e. prophets) leave is Sadaqa (to be used for charity).” Fatima, the daughter of Allah’s Apostle got angry and stopped speaking to Abu Bakr, and continued assuming that attitude till she died. Fatima remained alive for six months after the death of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam). She used to ask Abu Bakr for her share from the property of Allah’s Apostle which he left at Khaibar, and Fadak, and his property at Medina (devoted for charity). Abu Bakr refused to give her that property and said, “I will not leave anything Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to do, because I am afraid that if I left something from the Prophet’s tradition, then I would go astray.” (Later on) Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) gave the Prophet’s property (of Sadaqa) at Medina to ‘Ali and ‘Abbas, but he withheld the properties of Khaibar and Fadak in his custody and said, “These two properties are the Sadaqa which Allah’s Apostle used to use for his expenditures and urgent needs. Now their management is to be entrusted to the ruler.” (Az-Zuhri said, “They have been managed in this way till today.”)

Today’s Ahadith:

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 326 :
Narrated by Malik bin Aus
While I was at home, the sun rose high and it got hot. Suddenly the messenger of ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab (radiallaahu `anhu) came to me and said, “The chief of the believers has sent for you.” So, I went along with him till I entered the place where ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) was sitting on a bedstead made of date-palm leaves and covered with no mattress, and he was leaning over a leather pillow. I greeted him and sat down. He said, “O Malik! Some persons of your people who have families came to me and I have ordered that a gift should be given to them, so take it and distribute it among them.” I said, “O chief of the believers! I wish that you order someone else to do it.” He said, “O man! Take it.” While I was sitting there with him, his doorman Yarfa’ came saying, “‘Uthman, ‘Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Auf, Az-Zubair and Sad bin Abi Waqqas (radiallaahu `anhum) are asking your permission (to see you); may I admit them?” ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “Yes”, So they were admitted and they came in, greeted him, and sat down. After a while Yarfa’ came again and said, “May I admit ‘Ali and ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhumaa)?” ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “yes.” So, they were admitted and they came in and greeted (him) and sat down. Then ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “O chief of the believers! Judge between me and this (i.e. ‘Ali).” They had a dispute regarding the property of Bani An-Nadir which Allah had given to His Apostle as Fai. The group (i.e. ‘Uthman and his companions) said, “O chief of the believers! Judge between them and relieve both of them front each other.” ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “Be patient! I beseech you by Allah by Whose Permission the Heaven and the Earth exist, do you know that Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, ‘Our (i.e. prophets’) property will not be inherited, and whatever we leave, is Sadaqa (to be used for charity),’ and Allah’s Apostle meant himself (by saying “we”)?” The group said, “He said so.” ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) then turned to ‘Ali and ‘Abbas and said, “I beseech you by Allah, do you know that Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said so?” They replied, ” He said so.” ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) then said, “So, I will talk to you about this matter. Allah bestowed on His Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) with a special favor of something of this Fai (booty) which he gave to nobody else.” ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) then recited the Holy Verses: “What Allah bestowed as (Fai) Booty on his Apostle (Muhammad) from them — for this you made no expedition with either cavalry or camelry: But Allah gives power to His Apostles over whomever He will ‘And Allah is able to do all things.” 9:6) ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) added “So this property was especially given to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), but, by Allah, neither did he take possession of it and leave your, nor did he favor himself with it to your exclusion, but he gave it to all of you and distributed it amongst you till this property remained out of it. Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to spend the yearly expenses of his family out of this property and used to keep the rest of its revenue to be spent on Allah ‘s Cause. Allah ‘s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) kept on doing this during all his lifetime. I ask you by Allah do you know this?” They replies in the affirmative. ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) then said to ‘Ali and ‘Abbas. “I ask you by Allah, do you know this?” ‘Umar added, “When Allah had taken His Prophet unto Him, ‘Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) said, ‘I am the successor of Allah’s Apostle so, Abu Bakr took over that property and managed it in the same way as Allah’s Apostle used to do, and Allah knows that he was true, pious and rightly-guided, and he was a follower of what was right. Then Allah took Abu Bakr unto Him and I became Abu Bakr’s successor, and I kept that property in my possession for the first two years of my Caliphate, managing it in the same way as Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to do and as Abu Bakr used to do, and Allah knows that I have been true, pious, rightly guided, and a follower of what is right. Now you both (i.e. ‘Ali and ‘Abbas) came to talk to me, bearing the same claim and presenting the same case; you, ‘Abbas, came to me asking for your share from your nephew’s property, and this man, i.e. ‘Ali, came to me asking for his wife’s share from her father’s property. I told you both that Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, ‘Our (prophets’) properties are not to be inherited, but what we leave is Sadaqa (to be used for charity).’ When I thought it right that I should hand over this property to you, I said to you, ‘I am ready to hand over this property to you if you wish, on the condition that you would take Allah’s Pledge and Convention that you would manage it in the same way as Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to, and as Abu Bakr used to do, and as I have done since I was in charge of it.’ So, both of you said (to me), ‘Hand it over to us,’ and on that condition I handed it over to you. So, I ask you by Allah, did I hand it over to them on this condition?” The group aid, “Yes.” Then ‘Umar faced ‘Ali and Abbas saying, “I ask you by Allah, did I hand it over to you on this condition?” They said, “Yes. ” He said, ” Do you want now to give a different decision? By Allah, by Whose Leave both the Heaven and the Earth exist, I will never give any decision other than that (I have already given). And if you are unable to manage it, then return it to me, and I will do the job on your behalf.”

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 327 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu)
The delegates of the tribe of ‘Abdul-Qais came and said, “O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! We are from the tribe of Rabi’a, and there is the infidels of the tribe of Mudar intervening between you and us, so we cannot come to you except in the Sacred Months. So please order us some instructions that we may apply it to ourselves and also invite our people whom we left behind us to observe as well.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “I order you (to do) four (things) and forbid you (to do) four: I order you to believe in Allah, that is, to testify that None has the right to be worshipped but Allah (the Prophet pointed with his hand); to offer prayers perfectly; to pay Zakat; to fast the month of Ramadan, and to pay the Khumus (i.e. one-fifth) of the war booty to Allah and I forbid you to use Ad-dubba’, An-Naqir, Al-Hantam and Al-Muzaffat (i.e. utensils used for preparing alcoholic drinks).”

With regard to ghaneemah (booty), it is obligatory according to sharee’ah for the imaam (leader) or the commander of the mujaahideen or the one who is responsible for them or in charge of them, to gather the booty and divide it into five equal parts, one of which is to be distributed to the groups mentioned by Allaah in the aayah:

﴿وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا غَنِمْتُم مِّن شَىْءٍ فَأَنَّ للَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِى الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَـمَى وَالْمَسَـكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ إِن كُنتُمْ ءَامَنْتُم بِاللَّهِ وَمَآ أَنزَلْنَا عَلَى عَبْدِنَا يَوْمَ الْفُرْقَانِ يَوْمَ الْتَقَى الْجَمْعَانِ وَاللَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ ﴾

And know that whatever of war booty that you may gain, verily, one-fifth of it is assigned to Allah, and to the Messenger, and to the near relatives (of the Messenger), the orphans, the poor, and the wayfarer, if you have believed in Allah and in that which We sent down to Our servant on the Day of Criterion, the Day when the two forces met; and Allah is able to do all things.” [8:41]

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Ibn Kathir comments:

Allah explains the spoils of war in detail, as He has specifically allowed it for this honorable Ummah over all others. We should mention that the `Ghanimah’ refers to war spoils captured from the disbelievers, using armies and instruments of war. As for `Fai’, it refers to the property of the disbelievers that they forfeit in return for peace, what they leave behind when they die and have no one to inherit from them, and the Jizyah (tribute tax) and Khiraj (property tax). Allah said,

﴿وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا غَنِمْتُم مِّن شَىْءٍ فَأَنَّ للَّهِ خُمُسَهُ﴾

(And know that whatever of war booty that you may gain, verily, one-fifth of it is assigned to Allah) indicating that the one-fifth should be reserved and paid in full ﴿to Muslim leaders﴾ whether it was little or substantial, even a yarn and needle.

﴿وَمَن يَغْلُلْ يَأْتِ بِمَا غَلَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ ثُمَّ تُوَفَّى كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَّا كَسَبَتْ وَهُمْ لاَ يُظْلَمُونَ﴾

(And whosoever deceives (his companions over the booty), he shall bring forth on the Day of Resurrection that which he took (illegally). Then every person shall be paid in full what he has earned, and they shall not be dealt with unjustly.) ﴿3:161﴾

Allah’s statement,

﴿فَأَنَّ للَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَلِلرَّسُولِ﴾

(verily, one-fifth of it is assigned to Allah, and to the Messenger, ) was explained by Ibn `Abbas, as Ad-Dahhak reported from him, “Whenever the Messenger of Allah sent an army, he used to divide the war booty they collected into five shares, reserving one-fifth and divided it into five shares.” Then he recited;

﴿وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا غَنِمْتُم مِّن شَىْءٍ فَأَنَّ للَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَلِلرَّسُولِ﴾

(And know that whatever of war booty that you may gain, verily, one-fifth of it is assigned to Allah, and to the Messenger,)

Ibn Abbas said, “Allah’s statement,

﴿فَأَنَّ للَّهِ خُمُسَهُ﴾

(verily, one-fifth of it is assigned to Allah) is inclusive ﴿of the Messenger’s share﴾, just as the following Ayah is inclusive ﴿of Allah owning whatever is on the earth also﴾,

﴿لِّلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَـوتِ وَمَا فِى الاٌّرْضِ﴾

(To Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and on the earth)﴿2:284﴾.” So He addressed the share of Allah and the share of His Messenger in the same statement.

Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Al-Hasan bin Muhammad bin Al-Hanifiyyah, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Ash-Sha`bi, `Ata’ bin Abi Rabah, `Abdullah bin Buraydah, Qatadah, Mughirah and several others, all said that the share designated for Allah and the Messenger is one and the same. Supporting this is what Imam Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Bayhaqi recorded, with a Sahih chain of narrators, that `Abdullah bin Shaqiq said that a man from Bilqin said, “I came to the Prophet when he was in Wadi Al-Qura inspecting a horse. I asked, `O Allah’s Messenger! What about the Ghanimah’ He said,

«للهِ خُمُسُهَا وَأَرْبَعَةُ أَخْمَاسِهَا لِلْجَيْش»

(Allah’s share is one fifth and four-fifths are for the army.)

I asked, `None of them has more right to it than anyone else’ He said,

«لَا، وَلَا السَّهْمُ تَسْتَخْرِجُهُ مِنْ جَنْبِكَ لَيْسَ أَنْتَ أَحَقَّ بِهِ مِنْ أَخِيكَ الْمُسْلِم»

(No. Even if you remove an arrow that pierced your flank, you have no more right to it than your Muslim brother.)”

Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Miqdam bin Ma`dikarib Al-Kindi sat with `Ubadah bin As-Samit, Abu Ad-Darda’ and Al-Harith bin Mu`awiyah Al-Kindi, may Allah be pleased with them, reminding each other of the statements of the Messenger of Allah . Abu Ad-Darda’ said to `Ubadah, “O `Ubadah! What about the words of the Messenger of Allah during such and such battle, about the fifth (of the war booty)” `Ubadah said, “The Messenger of Allah led them in prayer, facing a camel from the war booty. When he finished the prayer, he stood up, held pelt of a camel between his fingers and said,

«إِنَّ هَذِهِ مِنْ غَنَائِمِكُمْ وَإِنَّهُ لَيْسَ لِي فِيهَا إِلَّا نَصِيبِي مَعَكُمْ إِلَّا الْخُمُسُ، وَالْخُمُسُ مَرْدُودٌ عَلَيْكُمْ، فَأَدُّوا الْخَيْطَ وَالْمَخِيطَ، وَأَكْبَرَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ وَأَصْغَرَ، وَلَا تَغُلُّوا فَإِنَّ الْغُلُولَ نَارٌ وَعَارٌ عَلَى أَصْحَابِهِ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ، وَجَاهِدُوا النَّاسَ فِي اللهِ الْقَرِيبَ وَالْبَعِيدَ، وَلَا تُبَالُوا فِي اللهِ لَوْمَةَ لَائِمٍ، وَأَقِيمُوا حُدُودَ اللهِ فِي الْحَضَرِ وَالسَّفَرِ، وَجَاهِدُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ، فَإِنَّ الْجِهَادَ بَابٌ مِنْ أَبْوَابِ الْجَنَّةِ عَظِيمٌ، يُنْجِي بِهِ اللهُ مِنَ الْهَمِّ وَالْغَم»

(This is also a part of the war booty you earned. Verily, I have no share in it, except my own share, the fifth designated to me. Even that fifth will be given to you (indicating the Prophet’s generosity). Therefore, surrender even the needle and the thread, and whatever is bigger or smaller than that (from the war spoils). Do not cheat with any of it, for stealing from the war booty before its distribution is Fire and a shame on its people in this life and the Hereafter. Perform Jihad against the people in Allah’s cause, whether they are near or far, and do not fear the blame of the blamers, as long as you are in Allah’s cause. Establish Allah’s rules while in your area and while traveling. Perform Jihad in Allah’s cause, for Jihad is a tremendous door leading to Paradise. Through it, Allah saves (one) from sadness and grief.)”

This is a tremendous Hadith, but I did not find it in any of the six collections of Hadith through this chain of narration. However, Imam Ahmad, Abu Dawud and An-Nasa’i recorded a Hadith from `Amr bin Shu`ayb, from his father, from his grandfather `Abdullah bin `Amr, from the Messenger of Allah , and this narration is similar to the one above, and a version from `Amr bin `Anbasah was recorded by Abu Dawud and An-Nasa’i. The Prophet used to choose some types of the war booty for himself; a servant, a horse, or a sword, according to the reports from Muhammad bin Sirin, `Amir Ash-Sha`bi and many scholars. For instance, Imam Ahmad and At-Tirmidhi — who graded it Hasan — recorded from Ibn `Abbas that the Messenger of Allah chose a sword called `Dhul-Fiqar’ on the day of Badr. `A’ishah narrated that Safiyyah was among the captured women, and the Prophet chose ﴿and married﴾ her (upon his own choice and before distribution of war booty), as Abu Dawud narrated in the Sunan. As for the share of the Prophet’s relatives, it is paid to Bani Hashim and Bani Al-Muttalib, because the children of Al-Muttalib supported Bani Hashim in Jahiliyyah after Islam. They also went to the mountain pass of Abu Talib in support of the Messenger of Allah and to protect him (when the Quraysh boycotted Muslims for three years). Those who were Muslims (from Bani Al-Muttalib) did all this in obedience to Allah and His Messenger , while the disbelievers among them did so in support of their tribe and in obedience to Abu Talib, the Messenger’s uncle.

Allah said next,

﴿وَالْيَتَـمَى﴾

(the orphans), in reference to Muslim orphans,

﴿وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ﴾

(and the wayfarer), the traveler and those who intend to travel for a distance during which shortening the prayer is legislated, but do not have resources to spend from. We will explain this subject in Surah Bara’h ﴿9:60﴾, Allah willing, and our reliance and trust is in Him alone.

Allah said,

﴿إِن كُنتُمْ ءَامَنْتُم بِاللَّهِ وَمَآ أَنزَلْنَا عَلَى عَبْدِنَا﴾

(If you have believed in Allah and in that which We sent down to Our servant)

Allah says, `Adhere to what We legislated for you, such as the ruling about one-fifth of the war spoils, if you truly believe in Allah, the Last Day and what We have revealed to Our Messenger .’ In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that `Abdullah bin `Abbas said, – while narrating the lengthy Hadith about the delegation of Bani Abdul Qays – that the Messenger of Allah said to them,

«وآمُرُكُمْ بِأَرْبَعٍ، وَأَنْهَاكُمْ عَنْ أَرْبَعٍ. آمُرُكُمْ بِالْإِيمَانِ بِاللهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ: هَلْ تَدْرُونَ مَا الْإِيمَــانُ بِاللهِ؟ شَهَــــادَةُ أَن لَّا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ، وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللهِ، وَإِقَامُ الصَّلَاةِ وَإِيتَاءُ الزَّكَاةِ، وَأن تُؤَدُّوا الْخُمُسَ مِنَ الْمَغْنَم»

I command you with four and forbid four from you. I command you to believe in Allah. Do you know what it means to believe in Allah Testifying that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, establishing the prayer, giving Zakah and honestly surrendering one-fifth of the war spoils.)

Therefore, the Messenger listed surrendering one-fifth of the war booty as part of faith. This is why Al-Bukhari wrote a chapter in his Sahih entitled, “Chapter: Paying the Khumus (one-fifth) is Part of Faith.” He then narrated the above Hadith from Ibn `Abbas. Allah said next,

﴿يَوْمَ الْفُرْقَانِ يَوْمَ الْتَقَى الْجَمْعَانِ وَاللَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ﴾

(on the Day of Criterion, the Day when the two forces met; and Allah is Able to do all things.) Allah is making His favors and compassion towards His creation known, when He distinguished between truth and falsehood in the battle of Badr. That day was called, `Al-Furqan’, because Allah raised the word of faith above the word of falsehood, He made His religion apparent and supported His Prophet and his group. `Ali bin Abi Talhah and Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “Badr is YawmAl-Furqan; during it, Allah separated between truth and falsehood.” Al-Hakim collected this statement. Similar statements were reported from Mujahid, Miqsam, `Ubaydullah bin `Abdullah, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, Muqatil bin Hayyan and several others.

Battle of Hunayn (Hadith No. 1999)

Bismillah.

Volume 3, Book 38, Number 503 :
Narrated by Marwan bin Al-Hakam and Al-Miswar bin Makhrama (radiallaahu `anhumaa)
When the delegates of the tribe of Hawazin, after embracing Islam, came to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), he got up. They appealed to him to return their properties and their captives. Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said to them, “The most beloved statement to me is the true one. So, you have the option of restoring your properties or your captives, for I have delayed distributing them.” The narrator added, Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had been waiting for them for more than ten days on his return from Taif. When they realized that Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) would return to them only one of two things, they said, “We choose our captives.” So, Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) got up in the gathering of the Muslims, praised Allah as He deserved, and said, “Then after! These brethren of yours have come to you with repentance and I see it proper to return their captives to them. So, whoever amongst you likes to do that as a favor, then he can do it, and whoever of you wants to stick to his share till we pay him from the very first booty which Allah will give us then he can do so.” The people replied, “We agree to give up our shares willingly as a favor for Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam).” Then Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “We don’t know who amongst you has agreed and who hasn’t. Go back and your chiefs may tell us your opinion.” So, all of them returned and their chiefs discussed the matter with them and then they (i.e. their chiefs) came to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) to tell him that they (i.e. the people) had given up their shares gladly and willingly.

Battle of Hunayn, as described by Ibn Kathir in the tafseer of ayah 25 of Surah at-Tawbah:

The battle of Hunayn occurred after the victory of Makkah, in the month of Shawwal of the eighth year of Hijrah. After the Prophet conquered Makkah and things settled, most of its people embraced Islam and he set them free. News came to the Messenger of Allah that the tribe of Hawazin were gathering their forces to fight him, under the command of Malik bin `Awf An-Nadri, as well as, the entire tribe of Thaqif, the tribes of Banu Jusham, Banu Sa`d bin Bakr, a few people of Awza` from Banu Hilal and some people from Bani `Amr bin `Amir and `Awf bin `Amir. They brought their women, children, sheep and camels along, in addition to their armed forces and adequate supplies. The Messenger of Allah marched to meet them with the army that he brought to conquer Makkah, ten thousand from the Muhajirin, the Ansar and various Arab tribes. Along with them came the Tulaqa’ numbering two thousand men. The Messenger took them along to meet the enemy. The two armies met in Humayn, a valley between Makkah and At-Ta’if. The battle started in the early part of the morning, when the Huwazin forces, who were lying in ambush, descended on the valley when the Muslims entered. Muslims were suddenly struck by the ambush, the arrows descended on them and the swords struck them. The Huwazin commander ordered them to descend and attack the Muslims as one block, and when they did that, the Muslims retreated in haste, just as Allah described them. The Messenger of Allah remained firm in his position while riding his mule, Ash-Shahba’. He was leading his mule towards the enemy, while his uncle Al-`Abbas was holding its right-hand rope and ﴿his cousin﴾ Abu Sufyan bin Al-Harith bin `Abdul-Muttalib was holding the left rope. They tried to hold the mule back so it would not run faster toward the enemy. Meanwhile, the Messenger of Allah was declaring his name aloud and saying,

«إِلَيَّ عِبَادَ اللهِ إِلَيَ أَنَا رَسُولُ الله»

(O servants of Allah! Come back to me! I am the Messenger of Allah! He repeated these words,

«أَنَا النَّبِيُّ لَاكَذِبْ. أَنَا ابْنُ عَبْدِالْمُطَّلِب»

(I am the Prophet, not lying! I am the son of Abdul-Muttalib!) There remained between a hundred and eighty Companions with the Prophet . These included Abu Bakr, `Umar, Al-`Abbas, `Ali, Al-Fadl bin `Abbas, Abu Sufyan bin Al-Harith, Ayman the son of Umm Ayman and Usamah bin Zayd. There were many other Companions, may Allah be pleased with them. The Prophet commanded his uncle Al-`Abbas, whose voice was rather loud, to call at the top of his voice, “O Companions of the Samurah ﴿tree﴾” referring to the Muhajirin and Ansar who gave their pledge under the tree during the pledge of Ridwan, not to run away and retreat. He also called, “O Companions of Surat Al-Baqarah.” Upon hearing that, those heralded started saying, “Here we are! Here we are!” Muslims started returning in the direction of the Messenger of Allah . If the camel of one of them did not obey him (as the people were rushing to the other direction in flight) he would wear his shield and descend from his camel and rush to the side of the Messenger of Allah on foot. When a large crowd gathered around the Messenger of Allah , he commanded them to fight in sincerity and took a handful of sand and threw it in the faces of the disbelievers, after supplicating to Allah,

«أللّهُمَّ أَنْجِزْ لِي مَا وَعَدْتَنِي»

(O Allah! Fulfill Your promise to me!) Then he threw that handful of sand which entered the eyes and mouth of all the disbelievers, thus distracting them from fighting, and they retreated in defeat. The Muslims pursued the enemy, killing and capturing them. The rest of the Muslim army (returning to battle gradually) rejoined their positions and found many captured disbelieving soldiers kept tied before the Messenger of Allah . In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Shu`bah said that Abu Ishaq said that Al-Bara’ bin `Azib said to a man who asked him, “O Abu `Amarah! Did you run away during Hunayn and leave the Messenger of Allah ” Al-Bara’ said, “But the Messenger of Allah did not run away. Hawazin was a tribe proficient with their arrows. When we met them we attacked their forces and they ran away in defeat. The Muslims started to worry about collecting the spoils of war and the Hawazin started shooting arrows at us, then the Muslims fled. I saw the Messenger of Allah proclaiming, — while Abu Sufyan was holding the bridle of his white mule,

«أَنَا النَّبِيُّ لَاكَذِبْ أَنَا ابْنُ عَبْدِالْمُطَّلِب»

(I am the Prophet, not lying, I am the son of `Abdul- Muttalib!) This shows the great courage on behalf of the Prophet in the midst of confusion, when his army ran away and left him behind. Yet, the Messenger remained on his mule, which is a slow animal, not suitable for fast battle moves or even escape. Yet, the Messenger of Allah was encouraging his mule to move forward towards the enemy announcing who he was, so that those among them who did not know who he was came to know him. May Allah’s peace and blessings be on the Messenger until the Day of Resurrection. This indicates the tremendous trust in Allah and reliance upon Him, as well as, sure knowledge that He will give him victory, complete what He has sent him for and give prominence to his religion above all other religions. Allah said,

﴿ثُمَّ أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ سَكِينَتَهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ﴾

(Then Allah did send down His Sakinah on His Messenger), He sent down tranquillity and reassurance to His Messenger,

﴿وَعَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ﴾

(and on the believers), who remained with him,

﴿وَأَنزَلَ جُنُوداً لَّمْ تَرَوْهَا﴾

(and sent down forces which you saw not, ) this refers to angels. Imam Abu Ja`far bin Jarir ﴿At-Tabari﴾ said that Al-Qasim narrated to them, that Al-Hasan bin `Arafah said that Al-Mu`tamir bin Sulayman said from `Awf bin Abi Jamilah Al-`Arabi who said that he heard `Abdur-Rahman, the freed slave of Ibn Barthan saying, “A man who participated in Hunayn with the idolators narrated to me, `When we met the Messenger of Allah and his Companions on the day of Hunayn, they did not remain in battle more than the time it takes to milk a sheep! When we defeated them, we pursued them until we ended at the rider of the white mule, the Messenger of Allah . At that time, men with white handsome faces intercepted us and said: `Disgraced be the faces! Go back. So we ran away, but they followed us. That was the end for us.”’ Allah said,

﴿ثُمَّ يَتُوبُ اللَّهُ مِن بَعْدِ ذَلِكَ عَلَى مَن يَشَآءُ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ ﴾

(Then after that Allah will accept the repentance of whom He wills. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) Allah forgave the rest of Huwazin when they embraced Islam and went to the Prophet , before he arrived at Makkah in the Ji`ranah area. This occurred twenty days after the battle of Hunayn. The Messenger gave them the choice between taking those who were prisoner or the war spoils they lost, and they chose the former. The Prophet released six thousand prisoners to them, but divided the war spoils between the victors, such as some of the Tulaqa’, so that their hearts would be inclined towards Islam. He gave each of them a hundred camels, and the same to Malik bin `Awf An-Nasri whom he appointed chief of his people (Huwazin) as he was before. Malik bin `Awf said a poem in which he praised the Messenger of Allah for his generosity and extraordinary courage.

Detailed story:

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