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#TBT: Eclipses (Ahadith 2820 – 2824)

Bismillah.

There have been, and still are, people who worship the sun, the moon and the stars, giving them divine attributes, for example knowledge of the future (hint: astrology). It’s natural for a person to think that they’re high and mighty because of their beauty and position in the sky that makes them untouchable. Even Prophet Ibrahim (`alayhissalaam) went through this thought process, as Allah mentions in the Quran:

Thus did We show Abraham the kingdom of the heavens and the earth that he be one of those who have Faith and certainty. When the night covered him over with darkness he saw a star. He said: “This is my lord.” But when it set, he said: “I like not that those who set.” When he saw the moon rising up he said: “This is my lord.” but when it set he said: “Unless my Lord guides me, I shall surely be among the erring people.” When he saw the sun rising up he said: “This is my lord, This is greater.” But when it set, he said: “O my people! I am indeed free from all that you join as partners in worship with Allah. Verily, I have turned my face towards Him Who has created the heavens and the earth Hanifan (Islamic Monotheism, i.e. worshipping none but Allah Alone) and I am not of the Al Mushrikeen (those who worship others besides Allah).” [6:75-79]

On the Day of Judgment, Allah will take away their light as if to show their worshipers that these beings that you worshiped and held high in esteem are actually helpless. Allah created them and He can very well destroy them if so He wills.

Volume 4, Book 54, Number 422 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “The sun and the moon will be folded up (deprived of their light) on the Day of Resurrection.”

When Ibrahim, the son of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), died, the sun eclipsed on the same day. People started saying that the eclipse happened because of Ibrahim’s death. So he explained..

Volume 4, Book 54, Number 423 :
Narrated by ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “The sun and the moon do not eclipse because of someone’s death or life (i.e. birth), but they are two signs amongst the Signs of Allah. So, if you see them (i.e. eclipse) offer the Prayer (of eclipse).”

Volume 4, Book 54, Number 424 :
Narrated by ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “The sun and the moon are two signs amongst the Signs of Allah. They do not eclipse because of someone’s death or life. So, if you see them (i.e. eclipse), celebrate the Praises of Allah (i.e. pray).”

Solar Eclipse

Volume 4, Book 54, Number 425 :
Narrated by ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa)
On the day of a solar eclipse, Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) stood up (to offer the eclipse prayer). He recited Takbir, recited a long recitation (of Holy Verses), bowed a long bowing, and then he raised h is head saying. “Allah hears him who sends his praises to Him.” Then he stayed standing, recited a long recitation again, but shorter than the former, bowed a long bowing, but shorter than the first, performed a long prostration and then performed the second Rak’a in the same way as he had done the first. By the time he had finished his prayer with Taslim, the solar eclipse had been over. Then he addressed the people referring to the solar and lunar eclipses saying, “These are two signs amongst the Signs of Allah, and they do not eclipse because of anyone’s death or life. So, if you see them, hasten for the Prayer.”

Volume 4, Book 54, Number 426 :
Narrated by Abu Mas’ud (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “the sun and the moon do not eclipse because of the death or life of someone, but they are two signs amongst the Signs of Allah. So, if you see them, offer the Prayer (of eclipse).”

Lunar Eclipse: Supermoon

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Beginning of Time, Creation of the Seven Earths and Prostration of the Sun (Ahadith 2814 – 2819)

Bismillah.

Volume 4, Book 54, Number 416 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “When Allah completed the creation, He wrote in His Book* which is with Him on His Throne, “My Mercy overpowers My Anger.”

*Al-Lawh al-Mahfooz [The Preserved Tablet]

Volume 4, Book 54, Number 417 :
Narrated by Muhammad bin Ibrahim bin Al-Harith
From Abu Salama bin ‘Abdur-Rahman who had a dispute with some people on a piece of land, and so he went to ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) and told her about it. She said, “O Abu Salama, avoid the land, for Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, ‘Any person who takes even a span of land unjustly, his neck shall be encircled with it down seven earths.’ “

For perspective: the total weight of (one) Earth is 5.972 × 10^24 kg. Save your pretty neck, be just.

Volume 4, Book 54, Number 418 :
Narrated by Salim’s father
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Any person who takes a piece of land unjustly will sink down the seven earths on the Day of Resurrection.”

Allah has mentioned these seven earths in the Quran:

اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ وَمِنَ الْأَرْضِ مِثْلَهُنَّ يَتَنَزَّلُ الْأَمْرُ بَيْنَهُنَّ لِتَعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ أَحَاطَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عِلْمًا

“It is Allah who has created seven heavens and of the earth, the like of them. [His] command descends among them so you may know that Allah is over all things competent and that Allah has encompassed all things in knowledge.” [65:12]

Volume 4, Book 54, Number 419 :
Narrated by Abu Bakra (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said. “The division of time has turned to its original form which was current when Allah created the Heavens and the Earths. The year is of twelve months, out of which four months are sacred: three are in succession Dhul-Qa’ da, Dhul-Hijja and Muharram, and (the fourth is) Rajab of (the tribe of) Mudar* which comes between Jumadi-ath-Thaniyah and Sha ban.”

*Rajab was called “Rajab of Mudar” because the tribe Mudar used to respect this month.

Among the creation of Allah is Time. It started when Allah created the Heavens and the Earths. Evolutionists date the universe back to 13.77 billion years and the Bible says it’s only 6000 years old, but Allah knows best when it all actually happened.

Volume 4, Book 54, Number 420 :
Narrated by Said bin Zaid bin Amr bin Nufail (radiallaahu `anhu)
That Arwa sued him before Marwan for a right, which she claimed, he had deprived her of. On that Said (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “How should I deprive her of her right? I testify that I heard Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) saying, ‘If anyone takes a span of land unjustly, his neck will be encircled with it down seven earths on the Day of Resurrection.”

Sa’eed bin Zaid (radiallaahu `anhu) was among the ten blessed companions who were promised Paradise during their lives. He accepted Islam in the very early days and was married to Fatima bint Khattab (Umar’s sister who played an important role in his acceptance of Islam – we all know that story!). Sa`eed (radiallaahu `anhu) participated in all the major battles and campaigns led by the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) with the exception of Badr because the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had sent him and Talhah bin ‘Ubaidullah (radiallaahu `anhu) on a reconnaissance mission a few days before it.

Once, a woman called “Awra binti Uways”, whose land was next to his land, went to Marwan bin Hakam, the governor of Madinah and complained about him. She said,

“Said bin Zayd occupied some of my land. Take it from him and give it to me.”

The governor sent a few people to investigate the issue. Said (radiallaahu `anhu) was in his land in Aqiq. The delegation mentioned him about the complaint. Said (radiallaahu `anhu), whose place in Paradise was definite when he was alive, realized that he was wronged. He said to them,

“Let me report you something that I heard from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam): The Messenger of Allah said, ‘If a person seizes a land that does not belong to him, that land will be wrapped around his neck on the Day of Judgment even if he is under the seventh floor of the earth. A person who dies for his property is regarded as a martyr.'”

Then, Said (radiallaahu `anhu) vowed that he did not violate the land of the woman. Then, he raised his hands and prayed as follows:

“O Allah! If this woman is lying, blind her eyes before she dies and make her well a grave for her!”

Allah Almighty heard the cry of the oppressed and accepted his prayer. The woman who slandered him became blind after a while. Then, she fell into the well in her garden while she was wandering around her house. The well became her grave.

Said (radiallaahu `anhu), who was mentioned by respect and mercy by the believers due to his exemplary life and his unbreakable connection with the Sunnah of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and who was a man of Paradise, died in the 51st year of the Migration at the age of 80.

Think before throwing a false accusation at someone. And think twice before throwing it at someone who is a beloved of Allah. If he/she prays against you, who will save you from Allah?

Volume 4, Book 54, Number 421 :
Narrated by Abu Dhar (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked me at sunset, “Do you know where the sun goes (at the time of sunset)?” I replied, “Allah and His Apostle know better.” He said, “It goes (i.e. travels) till it prostrates Itself underneath the Throne and takes the permission to rise again, and it is permitted and then (a time will come when) it will be about to prostrate itself but its prostration will not be accepted, and it will ask permission to go on its course but it will not be permitted, but it will be ordered to return whence it has come and so it will rise in the west. And that is the interpretation of the Statement of Allah: “And the sun Runs its fixed course For a term (decreed). that is The Decree of (Allah) The Exalted in Might, The All-Knowing.” (36.38)

Prostration beneath the Throne is a matter of the unseen, and no one knows how it is except Allah, may He be glorified and exalted. He, may He be glorified and exalted, has told us that all created things prostrate to Him, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“See you not that to Allah prostrates whoever is in the heavens and whoever is on the earth, and the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and the mountains, and the trees, and Ad-Dawab (moving living creatures, beasts, etc.), and many of mankind? But there are many (men) on whom the punishment is justified” [al-Hajj 22:18].

No one knows how this prostration is or when it happens or its real nature except Allah, may He be glorified and exalted.

https://i2.wp.com/cdn.bigbangfish.com/beautiful/beautiful-sunset/beautiful-sunset-5.jpg

Al-Khattaabi (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

It cannot be denied that it halts beneath the Throne, in a manner that we cannot see or comprehend; rather this is speaking about a matter of the unseen. So we should not disbelieve in it or ask how it happens, because our knowledge cannot comprehend it.

End quote from A‘laam al-Hadeeth Sharh Saheeh al-Bukhaari (p. 1893)

Read further on this issue here if you’re interested.

The Sun Stopped for Him. For Real! (Hadith No. 2750)

Bismillah.

Ahadith 2745 – 2749 (below) are repeats. See linked text for related posts.

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 348 :
Narrated by ‘Urwa-al-Bariqi (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Horses are always the source of good, namely, rewards (in the Hereafter) and booty, till the Day of Resurrection.”

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 349 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “When Khosrau is ruined, there will be no Khosrau after him; and when Caesar is ruined, there will be no Caesar after him. By Him in Whose Hands my life is, you will spend their treasures in Allah’s Cause.”

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 350 :
Narrated by Jabir bin Samura (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “When Khosrau is ruined, there will be no Khosrau after him; and when Caesar is ruined, their will be no Caesar after him. By Him in Whose Hands my life is, you will spend their treasures in Allah’s Cause.”

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 351 :
Narrated by Jabir bin Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Booty has been made legal for me.”

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 352 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Allah guarantees him who strives in His Cause and whose motivation for going out is nothing but Jihad in His Cause and belief in His Word, that He will admit him into Paradise (if martyred) or bring him back to his dwelling place, whence he has come out, with what he gains of reward and booty.”

Today’s Hadith:

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 353 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “A prophet amongst the prophets carried out a holy military expedition, so he said to his followers, ‘Anyone who has married a woman and wants to consummate the marriage, and has not done so yet, should not accompany me; nor should a man who has built a house but has not completed its roof; nor a man who has sheep or she-camels and is waiting for the birth of their young ones.’ So, the prophet carried out the expedition and when he reached that town at the time or nearly at the time of the ‘Asr prayer, he said to the sun, ‘O sun! You are under Allah’s Order and I am under Allah’s Order O Allah! Stop it (i.e. the sun) from setting.’ It was stopped till Allah made him victorious. Then he collected the booty and the fire came to burn it, but it did not burn it. He said (to his men), ‘Some of you have stolen something from the booty. So one man from every tribe should give me a pledge of allegiance by shaking hands with me.’ (They did so and) the hand of a man got stuck over the hand of their prophet. Then that prophet said (to the man), ‘The theft has been committed by your people. So all the persons of your tribe should give me the pledge of allegiance by shaking hands with me.’ The hands of two or three men got stuck over the hand of their prophet and he said, “You have committed the theft.’ Then they brought a head of gold like the head of a cow and put it there, and the fire came and consumed the booty. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) added: Then Allah saw our weakness and disability, so he made booty legal for us.”

[Click here to read the original text in Arabic.]

For the Bani Israeel, war booty was to be ‘given’ to Allah. As the Hadith shows, a fire used to consume it to symbolize acceptance from Allah. Islam made it easier for us, booty is to be shared among the Muslims in that, Jihad brings rewards in this world and the Hereafter as well.

Moving on, who was this Prophet for whom the sun was held back? I mean how cool was he?! It is narrated by al-Imam Ahmad in al-Musnad (14/65):

“The sun was not held back for any person except Yoosha‘ (peace be upon him) on the day he was marching to Jerusalem.

When Musa passed away, the leadership of Bani Isra’il passed to Yusha ibn Nun. Yusha ibn Nun is not mentioned directly in the Qur’an but he is the servant of Musa who is referred to in the following verse of the Qur’an. The Prophet, sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, mentions the name of Yusha ibn Nun as this servant of Musa in a number of authentic narrations.

“AND LO! [In the course of his wanderings,] Moses said to his servant (fata), ‘I shall not give up until I reach the junction of the two seas, even if I [have to] spend untold years [in my quest]!'”
[Al-Qur’an 18:60]

Being a servant of Musa he was close to the Revelation, close to the teacher (Musa) and he was a righteous student of this teacher. And so, when Musa, ‘alayhis-salam, passed away, the leadership of Bani Isra’il was passed down to Yusha ibn Nun, and he became their nabi.

Under the leadership of Yusha ibn Nun, Bani Isra’il is made victorious and returns to the Holy Land, an event which did not occur under Musa or Harun (who both passed away whilst Bani Isra’il was still in the wilderness). The Prophet, sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, gives us a clue as to why this victory was delayed when he said:

“None of the ones who worshipped the calf entered into Jerusalem.”

[reference unknown]
The Children of Isra’il who came out of Egypt were raised up in slavery and servitude so they were weak and were not fit for victory. Allah made them stay in the wilderness for 40 years until all of that generation had passed away. And they were replaced by a new generation raised in freedom and taught the guidance of the Taurah by Musa and Harun, and it was this generation that was given the victory.

Musa is undoubtedly the greatest Prophet that was sent to Bani Isra’il and he strived eagerly to have this victory, yet we see that victory was not at his hands but rather at Yusha’s. What do we learn from this? That it is not enough to have an excellent leader alone – applying this to our times, it is not enough for us simply to wait for Al-Mahdi but rather we need to ensure we are a generation capable of victory and to be led to that victory by an excellent leader (be that Al-Mahdi or someone else).

And through the example of Yusha we see how Allah grants victory to those who have prepared for it. Yusha ibn Nun led the Children of Isra’il against the Jababirah (the inhabitants of Jerusalem), who were a large giant-like people. The fighting was furious and the sun was about to set. Yusha ibn Nun knew that he could not defeat these people except if the day was longer as, if night came, the Jababirah would be able to regroup. So Yusha pointed to the sun and said, “You are receiving orders and I am receiving orders from Allah, O Allah stop the sun!” Allah, subhanahu wa ta’ala, caused the sun to stop for Yusha ibn Nun until he defeated the people of Jerusalem. If you have Allah on your side, don’t worry! It’s not a matter of numbers, or weapons, or artillery when Allah is on your side.

Taking back of the 'promised land'..

Taking back of the ‘promised land’..

(s) Adapted by SunnahOnline.com from a lecture by Anwar al-Awalki as part of his Lives of the Prophets lecture series.

Did you know? Yusha` bin Noon was the great grandson of Prophet Yusuf (`alayhimussalaam). This was news to me so I thought I’d share. Cool, eh?

Eclipse – Misc. (Ahadith 864 – 871)

Assalamu`alaykum,
Bismillah.

Hadith no. 863 is a repeat. Read it here.

Volume 2, Book 18, Number 864:

Narrated Abu Masud:

Allah’s Apostle said, “The sun and the moon do not eclipse because of someone’s death or life but they are two signs amongst the signs of Allah, so pray whenever you see them.”

Volume 2, Book 18, Number 865:

Narrated ‘Aisha:

In the lifetime of the Prophet the sun eclipsed and the Prophet (p.b.u.h) stood up to offer the prayer with the people and recited a long recitation, then he performed a prolonged bowing, and then lifted his head and recited a prolonged recitation which was shorter than the first. Then he performed a prolonged bowing which was shorter than the first and then lifted his head and performed two prostrations. He then stood up for the second Raka and offered it like the first. Then he stood up and said, “The sun and the moon do not eclipse because of someone’s life or death but they are two signs amongst the signs of Allah which He shows to His worshipers. So whenever you see them, make haste for the prayer.

Volume 2, Book 18, Number 866:

Narrated Abu Musa:

The sun eclipsed and the Prophet got up, being afraid that it might be the Hour (i.e. Day of Judgment). He went to the Mosque and offered the prayer with the longest Qiyam, bowing and prostration that I had ever seen him doing. Then he said, “These signs which Allah sends do not occur because of the life or death of somebody, but Allah makes His worshipers afraid by them. So when you see anything thereof, proceed to remember Allah, invoke Him and ask for His forgiveness.”

Volume 2, Book 18, Number 867:

Narrated Al-Mughira bin Shu’ba :

On the day of Ibrahim’s death, the sun eclipsed and the people said that the eclipse was due to the death of Ibrahim (the son of the Prophet). Allah’s Apostle said, “The sun and the moon are two signs amongst the signs of Allah. They do not eclipse because of someone’s death or life. So when you see them, invoke Allah and pray till the eclipse is clear.

Volume 2, Book 18, Number 868:

Narrated Abu Bakra:

In the life-time of the Prophet the sun eclipsed and then he offered a two Rakat prayer.

Volume 2, Book 18, Number 869:

Narrated Abu Bakra:

In the life-time of the Allah’s Apostle (p.b.u.h) the sun eclipsed and he went out dragging his clothes till he reached the Mosque. The people gathered around him and he led them and offered two Rakat. When the sun (eclipse) cleared, he said, “The sun and the moon are two signs amongst the signs of Allah; they do not eclipse because of the death of someone, and so when an eclipse occurs, pray and invoke Allah till the eclipse is over.” It happened that a son of the Prophet called Ibrahim died on that day and the people were talking about that (saying that the eclipse was caused by his death).

Volume 2, Book 18, Number 870:

Narrated Aisha:

The Prophet led us and performed four bowing in two Rakat during the solar eclipse and the first Raka was longer.

Volume 2, Book 18, Number 871:

Narrated ‘Aisha:

The Prophet (p.b.u.h) recited (the Quran) aloud during the eclipse prayer and when he had finished the eclipse prayer he said the Takbir and bowed. When he stood straight from bowing he would say “Sami ‘al-l-ahu Lyman hamidah Rabbana walaka-l-hamd.” And he would again start reciting. In the eclipse prayer there are four bowing and four prostrations in two Rakat. Al-Auza’i and others said that they had heard Az-Zuhi from ‘Ursa from ‘Aisha saying, “In the life-time of Allah’s Apostle the sun eclipsed, and he made a person to announce: ‘Prayer in congregation.’ He led the prayer and performed four bowing and four prostrations in two Rakat.” Narrated Al-Walid that ‘Abdur-Rahman bin Namir had informed him that he had heard the same. Ibn Shihab heard the same. Az-Zuhrl said, “I asked (‘Ursa), ‘What did your brother ‘Abdullah bin AzZubair do? He prayed two Rakat (of the eclipse prayer) like the morning prayer, when he offered the (eclipse) prayer in Median.’ ‘Ursa replied that he had missed (i.e. did not pray according to) the Prophet’s tradition.” Sulaiman bin Kathir and Sufyan bin Husain narrated from Az-Zuhri that the prayer for the eclipse used to be offered with loud recitation.

Related posts: Eclipses, Things to Do During Eclipse, Salat-ul-Kusoof, Punishment of the Grave.

Kitaab-ul-Kusoof [Book of Eclipses] ends here.

Wassalam.

Salat-ul-Kusoof (Ahadith 854 – 857)

Assalamu`alaykum,
Bismillah.

Volume 2, Book 18, Number 854:

Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr :

“When the sun eclipsed in the life-time of Allah’s Apostle an announcement was made that a prayer was to be offered in congregation.”

Volume 2, Book 18, Number 855:

Narrated ‘Aisha:

(the wife of the Prophet (p.b.u.h) In the lifetime of the Prophet the sun eclipsed and he went to the Mosque and the people aligned behind him. He said the Takbir (starting the prayer) and prolonged the recitation (from the Quran) and then said Takbir and performed a prolonged bowing; then he (lifted his head and) said, “Sami allahu liman hamidah” (Allah heard him who sent his praises to Him). He then did not prostrate but stood up and recited a prolonged recitation which was shorter than the first recitation. He again said Takbir and then bowed a prolonged bowing but shorter than the first one and then said, “Sami ‘a-l-lahu Lyman hamidah Rabbana walak-lhamd, (Allah heard him who sent his praises to Him. O our Sustainer! All the praises are for You)” and then prostrated and did the same in the second Raka; thus he completed four bowing and four prostrations. The sun (eclipse) had cleared before he finished the prayer. (After the prayer) he stood up, glorified and praised Allah as He deserved and then said, “The sun and the moon are two of the signs of Allah. They do not eclipse because of the death or the life (i.e. birth) of someone. When you see them make haste for the prayer.” Narrated Az-Zuhri: I said to ‘Ursa, “When the sun eclipsed at Medina your brother (‘Abdullah bin Az-Zubair) offered only a two-Rakat prayer like that of the morning (Fajr) prayer.” ‘Ursa replied, “Yes, for he missed the Prophet’s tradition (concerning this matter).”

Volume 2, Book 18, Number 856:

Narrated Aisha:

(the wife of the Prophet) On the day when the sun Khasafat (eclipsed) Allah’s Apostle prayed; he stood up and said Takbir and recited a prolonged recitation, then he performed a prolonged bowing, then he raised his head and said, “Sami’a-l-lahu Lyman Hamidah,” and then remained standing and recited a prolonged recitation which was shorter than the first. Then he performed a prolonged bowing which was shorter than the first. Then he prostrated and prolonged the prostration and he did the same in the second Raka as in the first and then finished the prayer with Taslim. By that time the sun (eclipse) had cleared He addressed the people and said, “The sun and the moon are two of the signs of Allah; they do not eclipse (Yakhsifan) because of the death or the life (i.e. birth) of someone. So when you see them make haste for the prayer.”

Volume 2, Book 18, Number 857:

Narrated Abu Bakra:

Allah’s Apostle said: “The sun and the moon are two signs amongst the signs of Allah and they do not eclipse because of the death of someone but Allah frightens His devotees with them.”

Time

The time for Salaat al-Kusoof lasts from the beginning of the eclipse until it is over, because the Prophet SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “When you see that, then pray.” (Agreed upon). According to another hadeeth, “If you see anything of that, then pray until it is over.” (Reported by Muslim).

Salaat al-Kusoof should not be done once the eclipse is over, because the time has gone. If an eclipse ends before one knows about it, one does not have to pray, because the reason for this prayer is no longer there.

Method

The way in which Salaat al-Kusoof is done is to pray two Rak’ahs in which Qur’aan is recited aloud, according to the correct one out of the two scholarly opinions. In the first Rak’ah, one should recite al-Faatihah and a long soorah such as Soorat al-Baqarah or the equivalent, then do a long rukoo’, then raise one’s head and say, “Sami’a Allaahu liman hamidah, Rabbanaa wa laka’l-hamd (Allaah listens to the one who praises Him; our Lord to You be praise)” after standing upright, as in other prayers. Then one should then recite al-Faatihah and another long soorah, shorter than in the first recitation, equivalent in length to Soorat Aal ‘Imraan. Then one should do another long rukoo’ shorter than the first, and when raising one’s head, say, “Sami’a Allaahu liman hamidah, Rabbanaa wa laka’l-hamd hamdan katheeran tayyiban mubaarakan fih, mal’ al-samawaati wa mal’ al-ard wa mal’ ma shi’ta min shay’in ba’d (Allaah listens to the one who praises Him; our Lord to You be praise, much good and blessed praise, filling heaven and earth and whatever You will besides that).” Then he should do two lengthy sujoods, without making the sitting between them too long. Then one should pray the second rak’ah like the first, with two long rukoo’s and two long sujoods, as he did in the first rak’ah. Then he should recite the Tashahhud and say the salaam.

Congregation

It is sunnah to pray Salaat al-Kusoof in jamaa’ah (congregation), because this is what the Prophet SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did, but it is permissible to pray it individually, as with all other naafil prayers. However, praying it in congregation is better.

Khutbah/Address

It is sunnah for the imaam to address the people after the prayer, and to warn them against negligence and being led astray, and to tell them to make lots of du’aa’ and ask for forgiveness.

Dua

If the prayer ends before the eclipse does, then remember Allaah (dhikr) and call on Him (du’aa’) until the eclipse ends. The prayer should not be repeated. If the eclipse ends before the prayer, then the prayer should be completed quickly, but it should not be stopped or cut off abruptly, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “and render not vain your deeds” [Muhammad 47:33]. The prayer should be at the time of the eclipse, because the Prophet SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “… until it (the eclipse) is over…” and he also said, “… until what you are going through is over …”

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said: “Sometimes eclipses last for a long time, and sometimes for a short time, depending on how much of the sun or moon is eclipsed. The entire sun or moon may be eclipsed, or only half of it, or one-third. If it is a total eclipse, then the prayer should last long enough for all of al-Baqarah or something of similar length to be recited in the first rak’ah, and in the next rak’ah a shorter recitation is made. There are saheeh ahaadeeth narrated from the Prophet SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), as we have mentioned, and it is prescribed to shorten the prayer if the reason for it [i.e., the eclipse] is no longer there. So if it is known that the eclipse will not last for long, or if it started to get less, one should still pray, but the prayer should be shortened. This is the opinion of the majority of scholars, because this prayer is prescribed for a specific reason, and if the reason is no longer there and the eclipse is over, one should not pray.”

Taken from IslamQA

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