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Of Peace Treaties, Asylums and Betrayals (2792 – 2810)

Bismillah.

This post contains a lot of ahadith related to peace treaties between Muslims and non-Muslims, asylum/protection given by a Muslim to non-Muslims, and betrayals or treachery concerning these treaties, so take your time going through it. I have explained where necessary, otherwise you’ll find the hyperlinked text and the related posts helpful inshaAllah.

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 394 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
When Khaibar was conquered, a roasted poisoned sheep was presented to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) as a gift (by the Jews). The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) ordered, “Let all the Jews who have been here, be assembled before me.” The Jews were collected and the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said (to them), “I am going to ask you a question. Will you tell the truth?” They said, “Yes.’ The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked, “Who is your father?” They replied, “So-and-so.” He said, “You have told a lie; your father is so-and-so.” They said, “You are right.” He said, “Will you now tell me the truth, if I ask you about something?” They replied, “Yes, O AbuAl-Qasim; and if we should tell a lie, you can realize our lie as you have done regarding our father.” On that he asked, “Who are the people of the (Hell) Fire?” They said, “We shall remain in the (Hell) Fire for a short period, and after that you will replace us.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “You may be cursed and humiliated in it! By Allah, we shall never replace you in it.” Then he asked, “Will you now tell me the truth if I ask you a question?” They said, “Yes, O Abu-AI-Qasim.” He asked, “Have you poisoned this sheep?” They said, “Yes.” He asked, “What made you do so?” They said, “We wanted to know if you were a liar in which case we would get rid of you, and if you are a prophet then the poison would not harm you.”

As you will find discussed in the above linked post, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not kill the woman who poisoned the sheep (Zaynab bint al-Haarith, the wife of Salaam ibn Mashkam) at first, but when Bishr ibn al-Bara’ ibn Ma’roor died as a result of the effects of this food, then he executed her as a qisaas punishment.

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 395 :
Narrated by ‘Asim
I asked Anas (radiallaahu `anhu) about the Qunut (i.e. invocation in the prayer). Anas (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “It should be recited before bowing.” I said, “So-and-so claims that you say that it should be recited after bowing.” He replied, “He is mistaken.” Then Anas (radiallaahu `anhu) narrated to us that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) invoked evil on the tribe of Bani-Sulaim for one month after bowing. ‘ Anas (radiallaahu `anhu) further said, “The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had sent 40 or 70 Qaris (i.e. men well versed in the knowledge of the Qur’an) to some pagans, but the latter struggled with them and martyred them, although there was a peace pact between them and the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam). I had never seen the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) so sorry and worried about anybody as he was about them (i.e. the Qaris).”

This shows that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) cursed those who broke the peace pact in such a brutal way. Can we invoke Allah’s curse on those who brutally slaughter our Muslim brothers and sisters? Yes.

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 396 :
Narrated by Um Hani (radiallaahu `anhaa), the daughter of Abu Talib:
I went to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) on the day of the conquest of Mecca and found him taking a bath, and his daughter Fatima was screening him. I greeted him and he asked, “Who is that?” I said, “I, Um Hani bint Abi Talib.” He said, “Welcome, O Um Hani.” When he had finished his bath, he stood up and offered eight Rakat while dressed in one garment. I said, “O Allah’s Apostle! My brother ‘Ali has declared that he will kill a man to whom I have granted asylum. The man is so and-so bin Hubaira.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “O Um Hani! We will grant asylum to the one whom you have granted asylum.” (Um Hani (radiallaahu `anhaa) said, “That (visit) took place in the Duha (i.e. forenoon)).

One Muslim’s protection = all Muslims’ protection.

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 397 :
Narrated by Ibrahim At-Tamimi’s father
‘Ali (radiallaahu `anhu) delivered a sermon saying, “We have no book to read except the Book of Allah and what is written in this paper which contains verdicts regarding (retaliation for) wounds, the ages of the camels (given as Zakat or as blood money) and the fact that Medina is a sanctuary in between `Ayr mountain to so-and-so (mountain). So, whoever innovates in it an heresy or commits a sin or gives shelter in it, to such an innovator will incur the Curse of Allah, the angels and all the people, and none of his compulsory or optional good deeds of worship will be accepted. And whoever (freed slave) takes as his master (i.e. befriends) other than his real masters will incur the same (Curse). And the asylum granted by any Muslim is to be secured by all the other Muslims, and whoever betrays a Muslim in this respect will incur the same (Curse).”

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 398 :
Narrated by Sahl bin Abi Hathma
‘Abdullah bin Sahl and Muhaiyisa bin Mas’ud bin Zaid set out to Khaibar, the inhabitants of which had a peace treaty with the Muslims at that time. They parted and later on Muhaiyisa came upon ‘Abdullah bin Sahl and found him murdered agitating in his blood. He buried him and returned to Medina. ‘Abdur Rahman bin Sahl, Muhaiyisa and Huwaiuisa, the sons of Mas’ud came to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and ‘Abdur Rahman intended to talk, but the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said (to him), “Let the eldest of you speak.” as ‘Abdur-Rahman was the youngest. ‘Abdur-Rahman kept silent and the other two spoke. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “If you swear as to who has committed the murder, you will have the right to take your right from the murderer.” They said, “How should we swear if we did not witness the murder or see the murderer?” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Then the Jews can clear themselves from the charge by taking Alaska (an oath taken by men that it was not they who committed the murder).” They said, “How should we believe in the oaths of infidels?” So, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) himself paid the blood money (of ‘Abdullah).

Because of the peace treaty between Muslims and Jews of Khaibar and the lack of evidence, Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) accepted the Jews’ oath and did not make a move against them. Yes, peace treaties are to be honored like that.

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Volume 4, Book 53, Number 399 :
Narrated by ‘ Abdullah bin ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu)
That Abu Sufyan bin Harb informed him that Heraclius called him and the members of a caravan from Quraish who had gone to Sham as traders, during the truce which Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had concluded with Abu Sufyan and the Quraish infidels.

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 400 :
Narrated by Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa)
Once the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was bewitched so that he began to imagine that he had done a thing which in fact he had not done.

This narration is included here because of the matter of the person (a Jew) who cast this magic spell on the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) while being in a peace contract with the Muslims. Read more here.

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 401 :
Narrated by Auf bin Mali (radiallaahu `anhu)
I went to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) during the Ghazwa of Tabuk while he was sitting in a leather tent. He said, “Count six signs that indicate the approach of the Hour: my death, the conquest of Jerusalem, a plague that will afflict you (and kill you in great numbers) as the plague that afflicts sheep, the increase of wealth to such an extent that even if one is given one hundred Dinars, he will not be satisfied; then an affliction which no Arab house will escape, and then a truce between you and Bani Al-Asfar (i.e. the Byzantines) who will betray you and attack you under eighty flags. Under each flag will be twelve thousand soldiers.

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 402 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu), on the day of Nahr (i.e. slaughtering of animals for sacrifice), sent me in the company of others to make this announcement: “After this year, no pagan will be allowed to perform the Hajj, and none will be allowed to perform the Tawaf of the Ka’ba undressed.” And the day of Al-Hajj-ul-Akbar is the day of Nahr, and it called Al-Akbar because the people call the ‘Umra Al-Hajj-ul-Asghar (i.e. the minor Hajj). Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) threw back the pagans’ covenant that year, and therefore, no pagan performed the Hajj in the year of Hajj-ul-Wada’ of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam).

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 403 :
Narrated by ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Whoever has (the following) four characteristics will be a pure hypocrite: “If he speaks, he tells a lie; if he gives a promise, he breaks it, if he makes a covenant he proves treacherous; and if he quarrels, he behaves in a very imprudent evil insulting manner (unjust). And whoever has one of these characteristics, has one characteristic of a hypocrite, unless he gives it us.”

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 404 :
Narrated by Ali (radiallaahu `anhu)
We did not, write anything from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) except the Quran and what is written in this paper, (wherein) the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Medina is a sanctuary from (the mountain of) `Ayr to so and-so, therefore, whoever innovates (in it) an heresy or commits a sin, or gives shelter to such an innovator, will incur the Curse of Allah. the angels and all the people; and none of his compulsory or optional good deeds of worship will be accepted And the asylum granted by any Muslim Is to be secured by all the Muslims even if it is granted by one of the lowest social status among them. And whoever betrays a Muslim in this respect will incur the Curse of Allah, the angels and all the people, and his compulsory and optional good deeds of worship will not be accepted. And any freed slave will take as masters (befriends) people other than his own real masters who freed him without taking the permission of the latter, will incur the Curse of Allah, the angels and all the people, and his compulsory and optional good deeds of worship will not be accepted.”
Narrated Said: Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu) once said (to the people), “What will your state be when you can get no Dinar or Dirham (i.e. taxes from the Dhimmis)?” on that someone asked him, “What makes you know that this state will take place, O Abu Hu raira?” He said, “By Him in Whose Hands Abu Huraira’s life is, I know it through the statement of the true and truly inspired one (i.e. the Prophet).” The people asked, “What does the Statement say?” He replied, “Allah and His Apostle’s asylum granted to Dhimmis, i.e. non-Muslims living in a Muslim territory) will be outraged, and so Allah will make the hearts of these Dhimmis so daring that they will refuse to pay the Jizya they will be supposed to pay.”

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 405 :
Narrated by Al-Amash
I asked Abu Wail (radiallaahu `anhu), “Did you take part in the battle of Siffin?” He said, ‘Yes, and I heard Sahl bin Hunaif (when he was blamed for lack of zeal for fighting) saying, “You’d better blame your wrong opinions. I wish you had seen me on the day of Abu Jandal. If I had the courage to disobey the Prophet’s (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) orders, I would have done so. We had kept out swords on our necks and shoulders, for a thing which frightened us. And we did so, we found it easier for us, except in the case of the above battle (of ours).’ “

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 406 :
Narrated by Abu Wail (radiallaahu `anhu)
We were in Siffin and Sahl bin Hunaif (radiallaahu `anhu) got up and said, “O people! Blame yourselves! We were with the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) on the day of Hudaibiya, and if we had been called to fight, we would have fought. But ‘Umar bin Al Khatab (radiallaahu `anhu) came and said, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! Aren’t we in the right and our opponents in the wrongs’ Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, ‘Yes.’ ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, ‘Aren’t our killed persons in Paradise and theirs in Hell?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, ‘Then why should we accept hard terms in matters concerning our religion? Shall we return before Allah judges between us and them?’ Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, ‘O Ibn Al-Khattab! I am the Apostle of Allah and Allah will never degrade me. Then ‘Umar went to Abu Bakr and told him the same as he had told the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam). On that Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) said (to ‘Umar). ‘He is the Apostle of Allah and Allah will never degrade him.’ Then Surat-al-Fath (i.e. Victory) was revealed and Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) recited it to the end in front of ‘Umar. On that ‘Umar asked, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! Was it (i.e. the Hudaibiya Treaty) a victory?’ Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Yes”.

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 407 :
Narrated by Asma ‘bint Abi Bakr (radiallaahu `anhaa)
During the period of the peace treaty of Quraish with Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), my mother, accompanied by her father, came to visit me, and she was a pagan. I consulted Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), “O Allah’s Apostle! My mother has come to me and she desires to receive a reward from me, shall I keep good relation with her?” He said, “Yes, keep good relation with her.”

Relatives, even those that are non-Muslims, have rights on us. We must keep good relations with them and fulfill our duty towards them.

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 408 :
Narrated by Al-Bara (radiallaahu `anhu)
When the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) intended to perform the ‘Umra he sent a person to the people of Mecca asking their permission to enter Mecca. They stipulated that he would not stay for more than three days and would not enter it except with sheathed arms and would not preach (Islam) to any of them. So Ali bin Abi-Talib (radiallaahu `anhu) started writing the treaty between them. He wrote, “This is what Muhammad, Apostle of Allah has agreed to.” The (Meccans) said, “If we knew that you (Muhammad) are the Apostle of Allah, then we would not have prevented you and would have followed you. But write, ‘This is what Muhammad bin ‘Abdullah has agreed to..’ ” On that Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “By Allah, I am Muhammad bin ‘Abdullah, and, by Allah, I am Apostle of ‘Allah.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used not to write; so he asked ‘Ali (radiallaahu `anhu) to erase the expression of Apostle of Allah. On that ‘Ali said, “By Allah I will never erase it.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said (to ‘Ali), “Let me see the paper.” When ‘Ali (radiallaahu `anhu) showed him the paper, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) erased the expression with his own hand. When Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had entered Mecca and three days had elapsed, the Meccans came to ‘Ali and said, “Let your friend (i.e. the Prophet) quit Mecca.” Ali (radiallaahu `anhu) informed Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) about it and Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Yes,” and then he departed.

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 409 :
Narrated by ‘Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu)
While the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was in the state of prostration, surrounded by a group of people from Quraish pagans. ‘Uqba bin Abi Mu’ait came and brought the intestines of a camel and threw them on the back of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam). The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) did not raise his head from prostration till Fatima (i.e. his daughter) came and removed those intestines from his back, and invoked evil on whoever had done (the evil deed). The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “O Allah! Destroy the chiefs of Quraish, O Allah! Destroy Abu Jahl bin Hisham, ‘Utba bin Rabi’a, Shaiba bin Rabi’a. ‘Uqba bin Abi Mu’ait ‘Umaiya bin Khalaf (or Ubai bin Kalaf).” Later on I saw all of them killed during the battle of Badr and their bodies were thrown into a well except the body of Umaiya or Ubai, because he was a fat person, and when he was pulled, the parts of his body got separated before he was thrown into the well.

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 410 :
Narrated by Anas (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, ”Every betrayer will have a flag on the Day of Resurrection” One of the two sub-narrators said that the flag would be fixed, and the other said that it would be shown on the Day of Resurrection, so that the betrayer might be recognized by it.

The punishment of betrayal includes humility because of the seriousness of the crime.

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 411 :
Narrated by Ibn Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Every betrayer will have a flag which will be fixed on the Day of Resurrection, and the flag’s prominence will be made in order to show the betrayal he committed.”

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 412 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said on the day of the conquest of Mecca, “There is no migration now, but there is Jihad (i.e.. holy battle) and good intentions. And when you are called for Jihad, you should come out at once” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) also said, on the day of the conquest of Mecca, “Allah has made this town a sanctuary since the day He created the Heavens and the Earth. So, it is a sanctuary by Allah’s Decree till the Day of Resurrection. Fighting in it was not legal for anyone before me, and it was made legal for me only for an hour by daytime. So, it (i.e. Mecca) is a sanctuary by Allah’s Decree till the Day of Resurrection. Its thorny bushes should not be cut, and its game should not be chased, its fallen property (i.e. Luqata) should not be picked up except by one who will announce it publicly; and its grass should not be uprooted,” On that Al-‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Except the Idhkhir, because it is used by the goldsmiths and by the people for their houses.” On that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Except the Idhkhir.”

Kitaab-ul-Jizyah [Book of Taxes] ends here. We start Kitaab Bad’-ul-Khalq [Book of Beginning of Creation] next inshaAllah.

Jizyah (Ahadith 2782 – 2791)

Bismillah.

Allah says in the Qur’an:

قَـتِلُواْ الَّذِينَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَلاَ بِالْيَوْمِ الاٌّخِرِ وَلاَ يُحَرِّمُونَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَلاَ يَدِينُونَ دِينَ الْحَقِّ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْكِتَـبَ حَتَّى يُعْطُواْ الْجِزْيَةَ عَن يَدٍ وَهُمْ صَـغِرُونَ

“Fight against those who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth among the People of the Scripture, until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.”

Jizyah is what is taken from the People of the Book – and from the mushrikeen, according to some scholars – every year, in return for their being allowed to settle in Muslim lands, and in return for protecting them against those who would commit aggression against them.

The word jizyah comes from the word jazaa’ (recompense). It is as if it is a recompense for us allowing them to live in our land and for us protecting their lives, property and dependents.

See: Tawdeeh al-Ahkaam min Buloogh al-Maraam by al-‘Allaamah ‘Abdullah al-Bassaam (3/437); Lisaan al-‘Arab (14/146); Tahdheeb al-Asma’ wa’l-Lughaat by an-Nawawi (3/51); al-Mawsoo‘ah al-Kuwaitiyyah (15/149).

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The fuqaha’ are unanimously agreed that jizyah may be accepted from the People of the Book, and from the Magians (Zoroastrians).

However, they differed concerning mushrikeen (polytheists) and idol worshippers, and also differed concerning the categories of People of the Book and Zoroastrians from whom jizyah may be accepted.

With regard to the rate of jizyah, the fuqaha’ differed concerning the exact rate, and there are several views. Perhaps the most likely to be correct is the view that concerning the jizyah, it should be decided by the ruler, who may increase it or decrease it according to the ability of ahl adh-dhimmah to pay it, and according to what he sees fit. This was narrated from Imam Ahmad. 

Jizyah is only to be accepted from adult men who are able to work.

Jizyah is not taken from boys who have not yet reached the age of puberty, or women, or from the insane. There is no difference of scholarly opinion on this point.

It is also not taken from very old men, the blind or the chronically sick.

And it is not taken from the poor who are unable to pay it.

[IslamQA]

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 384 :
Narrated by ‘Umar bin Dinar
I was sitting with Jabir bin Zaid and ‘Amr bin Aus, and Bajala was narrating to them in 70 A.H., the year when Musab bin Az-Zubair was the leader of the pilgrims of Basra. We were sitting at the steps of Zam-zam well and Bajala said, “I was the clerk of Jaz bin Muawiya, Al-Ahnaf’s paternal uncle. A letter came from ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab (radiallaahu `anhu) one year before his death; and it read:– “Cancel every marriage contracted among the Magians between relatives of close kinship (marriages that are regarded illegal in Islam: a relative of this sort being called Dhu-Mahram.)” ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) did not take the Jizya from the Magian infidels till ‘Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Auf testified that Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had taken the Jizya from the Magians of Hajar.

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 385 :
Narrated by ‘Amr bin ‘Auf Al-Ansari (who was an ally of Bam ‘Amr bin Lu’ai and one of those who had taken part in (the Ghazwa of) Badr):
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) sent Abu ‘Ubaida bin Al-Jarrah (radiallaahu `anhu) to Bahrain to collect the Jizya. Allah’s Apostle had established peace with the people of Bahrain and appointed Al-‘Ala’ bin Al-Hadrami as their governor. When Abu ‘Ubaida (radiallaahu `anhu) came from Bahrain with the money, the Ansar heard of Abu ‘Ubaida’s arrival which coincided with the time of the morning prayer with the Prophet. When Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) led them in the morning prayer and finished, the Ansar approached him, and he looked at them and smiled on seeing them and said, “I feel that you have heard that Abu ‘Ubaida has brought something?” They said, “Yes, O Allah’s Apostle’ He said, “Rejoice and hope for what will please you! By Allah, I am not afraid of your poverty but I am afraid that you will lead a life of luxury as past nations did, whereupon you will compete with each other for it, as they competed for it, and it will destroy you as it destroyed them.”

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 386 :
Narrated by Jubair bin Haiya
‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) sent the Muslims to the great countries to fight the pagans. When Al-Hurmuzan embraced Islam, ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said to him. “I would like to consult you regarding these countries which I intend to invade.” Al-Hurmuzan said, “Yes, the example of these countries and their inhabitants who are the enemies. of the Muslims, is like a bird with a head, two wings and two legs; If one of its wings got broken, it would get up over its two legs, with one wing and the head; and if the other wing got broken, it would get up with two legs and a head, but if its head got destroyed, then the two legs, two wings and the head would become useless. The head stands for Khosrau, and one wing stands for Caesar and the other wing stands for Faris. So, order the Muslims to go towards Khosrau.” So, ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) sent us (to Khosrau) appointing An-Numan bin Muqrin as our commander. When we reached the land of the enemy, the representative of Khosrau came out with forty-thousand warriors, and an interpreter got up saying, “Let one of you talk to me!” Al-Mughira replied, “Ask whatever you wish.” The other asked, “Who are you?” Al-Mughira replied, “We are some people from the Arabs; we led a hard, miserable, disastrous life: we used to suck the hides and the date stones from hunger; we used to wear clothes made up of fur of camels and hair of goats, and to worship trees and stones. While we were in this state, the Lord of the Heavens and the Earths, Elevated is His Remembrance and Majestic is His Highness, sent to us from among ourselves a Prophet whose father and mother are known to us. Our Prophet, the Messenger of our Lord (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), has ordered us to fight you till you worship Allah Alone or give Jizya (i.e. tribute); and our Prophet has informed us that our Lord says:– “Whoever amongst us is killed (i.e. martyred), shall go to Paradise to lead such a luxurious life as he has never seen, and whoever amongst us remain alive, shall become your master.” (Al-Mughira, then blamed An-Numan for delaying the attack and) An-Nu’ man said to Al-Mughira, “If you had participated in a similar battle, in the company of Allah’s Apostle he would not have blamed you for waiting, nor would he have disgraced you. But I accompanied Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) in many battles and it was his custom that if he did not fight early by daytime, he would wait till the wind had started blowing and the time for the prayer was due (i.e. after midday).”

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 387 :
Narrated by Abu Humaid As-Saidi
We accompanied the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) in the Ghazwa of Tabuk and the king of ‘Aila presented a white mule and a cloak as a gift to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam). And the Prophet wrote to him a peace treaty allowing him to keep authority over his country.

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 388 :
Narrated by Juwairiya bin Qudama At-Tamimi
We said to ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab (radiallaahu `anhu), “O Chief of the believers! Advise us.” He said, “I advise you to fulfill Allah’s Convention (made with the Dhimmis) as it is the convention of your Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and the source of the livelihood of your dependents (i.e. the taxes from the Dhimmis.) “

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 389 :
Narrated by Yahya bin Said (radiallaahu `anhu)
Once the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) called the Ansar in order to grant them part of the land of Bahrain. On that they said, “No! By Allah, we will not accept it unless you grant a similar thing to our Quarries brothers as well.” He said, “That will be theirs if Allah wishes.” But when the Ansar persisted in their request, he said, “After me you will see others given preference over you in this respect (in which case) you should be patient till you meet me at the Tank (of Al-Kauthar).”

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 390 :
Narrated by Jabir bin ‘Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) once said to me, “If the revenue of Bahrain came, I would give you this much and this much.” When Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had died, the revenue of Bahrain came, and Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) announced, ” Let whoever was promised something by Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) come to me.” So, I went to Abu Bakr and said, “Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said to me, ‘If the revenue of Bahrain came, I would give you this much and this. much.” On that Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) said to me, “Scoop (money) with both your hands.” I scooped money with both my hands and Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) asked me to count it. I counted it and it was five-hundred (gold pieces). The total amount he gave me was one thousand and five hundred (gold pieces.)

Narrated Anas (radiallaahu `anhu): Money from Bahrain was brought to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam). He said, “Spread it in the Mosque.” It was the biggest amount that had ever been brought to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam). In the meantime Al-‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu) came to him and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Give me, for I gave the ransom of myself and Aqil.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said (to him), “Take.” He scooped money with both hands and poured it in his garment and tried to lift it, but he could not and appealed to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), “Will you order someone to help me in lifting it?” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “No.” Then Al-‘Abbas said, “Then will you yourself help me carry it?” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “No.” Then Al ‘Abbas threw away some of the money, but even then he was not able to lift it, and so he gain requested the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), “Will you order someone to help me carry it?” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “No.” Then Al-‘Abbas said, “Then will you yourself help me carry it?” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, ‘No.” So, Al-‘Abbas threw away some more money and lifted it on his shoulder and went away. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) kept on looking at him with astonishment at his greediness till he went out of our sight. Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) did not get up from there till not a single Dirham remained from that money.

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 391 :
Narrated by ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Whoever killed a person having a treaty with the Muslims, shall not smell the smell of Paradise though its smell is perceived from a distance of forty years.”

A Muslim should not wrong a non-Muslim, with regard to his physical well-being, his wealth or his honor. If he is a dhimmi (non-Muslim living under Muslim rule), musta’man (one who is granted security in a Muslim land) or mu‘aahid (one with whose country the Muslims have a peace deal), then he should give him his due rights, and not transgress against his wealth by stealing, betraying or deceiving, and he should not harm him physically by striking or killing him, because the fact that he is a mu‘aahid or dhimmi, or musta’man, means that he is protected by sharee‘ah. [IslamQA]

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 392 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
While we were in the Mosque, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) came out and said, “Let us go to the Jews” We went out till we reached Bait-ul-Midras. He said to them, “If you embrace Islam, you will be safe. You should know that the earth belongs to Allah and His Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), and I want to expel you from this land. So, if anyone amongst you owns some property, he is permitted to sell it, otherwise you should know that the Earth belongs to Allah and His Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam).”

Volume 4, Book 53, Number 393 :
Narrated by Said bin Jubair
That he heard Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu) saying, “Thursday! And you know not what Thursday is? After that Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu) wept till the stones on the ground were soaked with his tears. On that I asked Ibn ‘Abbas, “What is (about) Thursday?” He said, “When the condition (i.e. health) of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) deteriorated, he said, ‘Bring me a bone of scapula, so that I may write something for you after which you will never go astray.’The people differed in their opinions although it was improper to differ in front of a prophet, They said, ‘What is wrong with him? Do you think he is delirious? Ask him (to understand). The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) replied, ‘Leave me as I am in a better state than what you are asking me to do.’ Then the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) ordered them to do three things saying, ‘Turn out all the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula, show respect to all foreign delegates by giving them gifts as I used to do.’ ” The sub-narrator added, “The third order was something beneficial which either Ibn ‘Abbas did not mention or he mentioned but I forgot.’

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