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Ghulool and its Punishment (Ahadith 2704 – 2705)

Bismillah.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 307 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) got up amongst us and mentioned Al Ghulul, emphasized its magnitude and declared that it was a great sin saying, “Don’t commit Ghulul for I should not like to see anyone amongst you on the Day of Resurrection, carrying over his neck a sheep that will be bleating, or carrying over his neck a horse that will be neighing. Such a man will be saying: ‘O Allah’s Apostle! Intercede with Allah for me,’ and I will reply, ‘I can’t help you, for I have conveyed Allah’s Message to you Nor should I like to see a man carrying over his neck, a camel that will be grunting. Such a man will say, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! Intercede with Allah for me, and I will say, ‘I can’t help you for I have conveyed Allah’s Message to you,’ or one carrying over his neck gold and silver and saying, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! Intercede with Allah for me,’ and I will say, ‘I can’t help you for I have conveyed Allah’s Message to you,’ or one carrying clothes that will be fluttering, and the man will say, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! Intercede with Allah for me.’ And I will say, ‘I can’t help you, for I have conveyed Allah’s Message to you.”

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 308 :
Narrated by ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr (radiallaahu `anhu)
There was a man who looked after the family and the belongings of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and he was called Karkara. The man died and Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “He is in the ‘(Hell) Fire.” The people then went to look at him and found in his place, a cloak he had stolen from the war booty.

Ghulool means breaching of a trust (khiyaanah). The term comes from the Quran directly when Allah addressed this issue by revealing the ayah:

وَمَا كَانَ لِنَبِيٍّ أَن يَغُلَّ ۚ وَمَن يَغْلُلْ يَأْتِ بِمَا غَلَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ۚ ثُمَّ تُوَفَّىٰ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَّا كَسَبَتْ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ

“It is not [attributable] to any prophet that he would act unfaithfully [in regard to war booty]. And whoever betrays, [taking unlawfully], will come with what he took on the Day of Resurrection. Then will every soul be [fully] compensated for what it earned, and they will not be wronged.” [Aal Imraan: 161]

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Ibn Kathir comments:

Allah said,

﴿وَمَا كَانَ لِنَبِىٍّ أَنْ يَغُلَّ﴾

(It is not for any Prophet to illegally take a part of the booty,)

Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and Al-Hasan said that the Ayah means, “It is not for a Prophet to breach the trust.” Ibn Jarir recorded that, Ibn `Abbas said that, this Ayah,

﴿وَمَا كَانَ لِنَبِىٍّ أَنْ يَغُلَّ﴾

(It is not for any Prophet to illegally take a part of the booty,) was revealed in connection with a red robe that was missing from the spoils of war of Badr. Some people said that the Messenger of Allah might have taken it. When this rumor circulated, Allah sent down,

﴿وَمَا كَانَ لِنَبِىٍّ أَنْ يَغُلَّ وَمَن يَغْلُلْ يَأْتِ بِمَا غَلَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ﴾

(It is not for any Prophet to illegally take a part of the booty, and whosoever is deceitful with the booty, he shall bring forth on the Day of Resurrection that which he took.)

This was also recorded by Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi, who said “Hasan Gharib”. This Ayah exonerates the Messenger of Allah of all types of deceit and treachery, be it returning what was entrusted with him, dividing the spoils of war, etc.

Allah then said,

﴿وَمَن يَغْلُلْ يَأْتِ بِمَا غَلَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ ثُمَّ تُوَفَّى كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَّا كَسَبَتْ وَهُمْ لاَ يُظْلَمُونَ﴾

(and whosoever is deceitful with the booty, he shall bring forth on the Day of Resurrection that which he took. Then every person shall be paid in full what he has earned, and they shall not be dealt with unjustly.)

This Ayah contains a stern warning and threat against Ghulul ﴿stealing from the booty﴾, and there are also Hadiths, that prohibit such practice. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Malik Al-Ashja`i said that the Prophet said,

«أَعْظَمُ الْغُلُولِ عِنْدَ اللهِ ذِرَاعٌ مِنَ الْأَرْضِ، تَجِدُون الرَّجُلَيْنِ جَارَيْنِ فِي الْأَرْضِ أو فِي الدَّارِ فَيَقْطَعُ أَحَدُهُمَا مِنْ حَظِّ صَاحِبِه ذِرَاعًا، فَإِذَا اقْتَطَعَهُ، طُوِّقَهُ مِنْ سَبْعِ أَرَضِينَ إِلى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَة»

(The worst Ghulul (i.e. stealing) with Allah is a yard of land, that is, when you find two neighbors in a land or home and one of them illegally acquires a yard of his neighbor’s land. When he does, he will be tied with it from the seven earths until the Day of Resurrection.)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Humayd As-Sa`idi said, “The Prophet appointed a man from the tribe of Al-Azd, called Ibn Al-Lutbiyyah, to collect the Zakah. When he returned he said, `This (portion) is for you and this has been given to me as a gift.’ The Prophet stood on the Minbar and said,

«مَا بَالُ الْعَامِلِ نَبْعَثُهُ فَيَجِي فَيَقُولُ: هَذَا لَكُمْ، وَهَذَا أُهْدِيَ لِي، أَفَلَا جَلَسَ فِي بَيْتِ أَبِيهِ وَأُمِّهِ فَيَنْظُرُ أَيُهْدَى إِلَيْهِ أَمْ لَا؟ وَالَّذِي نَفْسُ مُحَمَّدٍ بِيَدِهِ، لَا يَأْتِي أَحَدٌ مِنْكُمْ مِنْهَا بِشَيْءٍ إِلَّا جَاءَ بِهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ عَلى رَقَبَتِهِ، إِنْ كَانَ بَعِيرًا لَهُ رُغَاءٌ، أَوْ بَقَرَةٌ لَهَا خُوَارٌ، أَوْ شَاةٌ تَيْعَر»

ثم رفع يديه حتى رأينا عفرة إبطيه، ثم قال:

«اللَّهُمَّ هَلْ بَلَّغْت»

ثلاثًا.

(What is the matter with a man whom we appoint to collect Zakah, when he returns he said, `This is for you and this has been given to me as a gift.’ Why hadn’t he stayed in his father’s or mother’s house to see whether he would be given presents or not By Him in Whose Hand my life is, whoever takes anything from the resources of the Zakah (unlawfully), he will carry it on his neck on the Day of Resurrection; if it be a camel, it will be grunting; if a cow, it will be mooing; and if a sheep, it will be bleating. The Prophet then raised his hands till we saw the whiteness of his armpits, and he said thrice, `O Allah! Haven’t I conveyed Your Message.’)”

Hisham bin `Urwah added that Abu Humayd said, “I have seen him with my eyes and heard him with my ears, and ask Zayd bin Thabit.” This is recorded in the Two Sahihs .

In the book of Ahkam of his Sunan, Abu `Isa At-Tirmidhi recorded that Mu`adh bin Jabal said, “The Messenger of Allah sent me to Yemen, but when I started on the journey, he sent for me to come back and said,

«أَتَدْرِي لِمَ بَعَثْتُ إِلَيْكَ؟ لَا تُصِيبَنَّ شَيْئًا بِغَيْرِ إِذْنِي، فَإِنَّهُ غُلُول»

(Do you know why I summoned you back Do not take anything without my permission, for if you do, it will be Ghulul.)

﴿وَمَن يَغْلُلْ يَأْتِ بِمَا غَلَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ﴾

(and whosoever deceives his companions over the booty, he shall bring forth on the Day of Resurrection that which he took).

«لِهذَا دَعَوْتُكَ فَامْضِ لِعَمَلِك»

(This is why I summoned you, so now go and fulfill your mission.)” At-Tirmidhi said, “This Hadith is Hasan Gharib.”

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Who Do You Trust? (Hadith No. 2553)

Bismillah.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 158 :
Narrated by Jabir bin Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu)
That he proceeded in the company of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) towards Najd to participate in a Ghazwa. (Holy-battle) When Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) returned, he too returned with him. Midday came upon them while they were in a valley having many thorny trees. Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and the people dismounted and dispersed to rest in the shade of the trees. Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) rested under a tree and hung his sword on it. We all took a nap and suddenly we heard Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) calling us. (We woke up) to see a bedouin with him. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “This bedouin took out my sword while I was sleeping and when I woke up, I found the unsheathed sword in his hand and he challenged me saying, ‘Who will save you from me?’ I said thrice, ‘Allah.’ The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) did not punish him but sat down.

And in a narration of Abu Bakr Al-Isma`ili, the polytheist asked: “Who will protect you from me?” Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) replied, “Allah.” As soon as he said this, the sword fell down from his hand and Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) catching the sword, asked him, “Who will protect you from me.” He said, “Please forgive me.” Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “On condition you testify that there is none worthy of worship but Allah and that I am His Messenger.” He said, “No, but I promise you that I shall not fight against you, nor shall I be with those who fight with you”. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) let him go. He then went back to his companions and said: “I have come to you from one of the best of mankind”.

This does not only show the forgiving nature of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) but also his complete trust in Allah. Something we need in our lives badly.

‘And He will provide him from (sources) he could never imagine. And whoever puts their trust in Allah, then He will suffice him. Verily, Allah will accomplish His purpose. Indeed, Allah has set a measure for all things.’ [65:3]

In Allah alone, let the believers put their trust!

Being Careful with Hadith Narration (Hadith No. 2472)

Bismillah.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 78 :
Narrated by As-Sa’-ib bin Yazid
I was in the company of Talha bin ‘Ubaidullah, Sad, Al-Miqdad bin Al-Aswad and ‘Abdur Rahman bin ‘Auf (radiallaahu `anhum) and I heard none of them narrating anything from Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) except Talha who was talking about the day (of the battle) of Uhud.

The sahaba were careful about quoting the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) for fear of adding something to it or forgetting part of it. It was because of his words:

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Sahaba would never even think of fabricating ahadith. This was just a precaution some of them took. There were others like Aisha, Abu Huraira, Ibn Abbas etc. who narrating many ahadith from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) in order to spread his teachings.

In this day and age, it’s easy to confirm the authenticity of a report that is attributed to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam). It is our duty to make use of the available tools to confirm before broadcasting.

Read here the ruling on the one who tells lies against the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam).

Waqf (Hadith No. 2004)

Bismillah.

Hadith no. 2003 (below) talks about Riba al-Fadl.

Volume 3, Book 38, Number 506 :
Narrated by Abu Said al-Khudri (radiallaahu `anhu)
Once Bilal (radiallaahu `anhu) brought Barni (i.e. a kind of dates) to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked him, “From where have you brought these?” Bilal (radiallaahu `anhu) replied, “I had some inferior type of dates and exchanged two Sa’s of it for one Sa’ of Barni dates in order to give it to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam); to eat.” Thereupon the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Beware! Beware! This is definitely Riba (usury)! This is definitely Riba (Usury)! Don’t do so, but if you want to buy (a superior kind of dates) sell the inferior dates for money and then buy the superior kind of dates with that money.”

Today’s Hadith:

Volume 3, Book 38, Number 507 :
Narrated by ‘Amr (radiallaahu `anhu)
Concerning the Waqf of ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu): It was not sinful of the trustee (of the Waqf) to eat or provide his friends from it, provided the trustee had no intention of collecting fortune (for himself). Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) was the manager of the trust of ‘Umar and he used to give presents from it to those with whom he used to stay at Mecca.

Waqf means putting aside the original property and donating its benefits for the sake of Allaah. What is meant by the original property is something from which benefit may be derived whilst its essence remains, such as houses, shops, gardens, etc. What is meant by benefits is beneficial produce that comes from the original property, such as crops, rents, provision of shelter, etc.

The ruling concerning waqfs is that the waqf is an act of worship which is recommended in Islam (mustahabb). The evidence for that is the saheeh Sunnah. In al-Saheehayn it is narrated that ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “O Messenger of Allaah, I have got wealth from Khaybar and I have nothing that is more precious to me than that. What do you command me to do with it?” He said, “If you wish, you can put it aside and give in charity from it (from what it produces), but the original property should not be sold, given away or inherited.” So ‘Umar gave it in charity to the poor and to relatives, used it to set slaves free, gave it for the sake of Allaah, helped wayfarers and honoured his guests. Muslim narrated in his Saheeh that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “When the son of Adam dies, all his good deeds come to an end except three: ongoing charity, knowledge from which others may benefit after he is gone, and a righteous son who will pray for him.” Jaabir said: “There was no one among the Companions of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) who had the means, but he set up a waqf.”

Among the rulings on waqfs is that it is obligatory to act in accordance with the wishes of the one who set up the waqf, so long as it does not go against sharee’ah, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The Muslims are bound by their conditions, except for conditions which make haraam things permissible or halaal things forbidden.” And because ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) set up a waqf and stipulated certain conditions, and if it had not been obligatory to adhere to the conditions there would have been no point in stipulating them. So if (the person setting up the waqf) stipulates a certain amount, or that some deserving people should be given precedence over others, or that those who are to benefit should have certain qualities or be free of certain qualities, etc., then it should be done in accordance with his conditions, so long as that does not go against the Qur’aan or Sunnah.

If he does not stipulate any conditions, then rich and poor, male and female, should be treated equally when given the benefits of the waqf.

If he does not designate a specific person to be in charge of the waqf, or if he designates a specific person then that person dies, then the one to look after the waqf should be the one for whom it was set up. If the waqf was not set up to benefit a particular person, such as a waqf set up for a mosque a mosque, or for people who cannot be counted, such as the poor and needy, then the ruler should take care of the waqf, either in person or by delegating someone else to do it.

The person who takes care of the waqf has to fear Allaah and do a good job in taking care of the waqf, because that is something that has been entrusted to him (amaanah).

More on the rulings related to Waqf here.

Business with Friends (Hadith No. 1843)

Bismillah.

Volume 3, Book 34, Number 348 :
Narrated by Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa)
Rarely did the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) fail to visit Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu)’s house everyday, either in the morning or in the evening. When the permission for migration to Medina was granted, all of a sudden the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) came to us at noon and Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) was informed, who said, “Certainly the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) has come for some urgent matter.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said to Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu), when the latter entered “Let nobody stay in your home.” Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! There are only my two daughters (namely ‘Aisha and Asma’) present.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “I feel (am informed) that I have been granted the permission for migration.” Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “I will accompany you, O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)!” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “You will accompany me.” Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) then said “O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! I have two she-camels I have prepared specially for migration, so I offer you one of them. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “I have accepted it on the condition that I will pay its price.”

It’s better to do business with friends, I guess. They’re trusted people because you know them personally. They won’t double-cross you or deceive you or manipulate you for their own benefit. They’ll always look out for you and keep your good interest in consideration. And you’ll do the same for them. :)

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