Volume 4, Book 52, Number 46 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
I heard Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) saying, “The example of a Mujahid in Allah’s Cause– and Allah knows better who really strives in His Cause—-is like a person who fasts and prays continuously. Allah guarantees that He will admit the Mujahid in His Cause into Paradise if he is killed, otherwise He will return him to his home safely with rewards and war booty.”
Shahaadah in Arabic has several meanings: definitive news, being present, seeing something, openness, and dying for the sake of Allaah.
In Islamic terminology it refers to those Muslims who die fighting the kuffaar and because of the fighting. With regard to the Hereafter, it may refer to other things as well, as we shall see below.
See: al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah (26/214, 272).
Martyrs are of different types.
Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
It should be noted that martyrs are of three types:
1 – The one who is killed in a war against the kuffaar by any means of fighting. He comes under the heading of martyrs who are rewarded in the Hereafter and he comes under the rulings on martyrs in this world, i.e. he should not be washed and the funeral prayer should not be offered for him.
2 – The one who is given the reward of the martyr but does not come under the rulings on martyrs in this world. This refers to those who die of stomach diseases, the plague, being crushed under a falling wall, those who are killed defending their wealth and others who are mentioned in the saheeh ahaadeeth as being described as martyrs. Such a person should be washed and the funeral prayer should be offered for him, but in the Hereafter he will have the reward of the martyrs, but it will not necessarily be the same as the reward for those in the first category.
3 – Those who steal from the war booty etc, who it says in the reports cannot be regarded as martyrs if they are killed in a war against the kuffaar. Such a person comes under the ruling of martyrs in this world, so he should not be washed and the funeral prayer should not be offered for him, but he will not have the full reward in the Hereafter. End quote.
Sharh al-Nawawi ‘ala Muslim (2/164).
Degrees of martyrs:
The status of the martyr is high indeed, coming after the Prophets and Siddeeqs in status.
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah(may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Then they will be in the company of those on whom Allaah has bestowed His Grace, of the Prophets, the Siddeeqoon (those followers of the Prophets who were first and foremost to believe in them, like Abu Bakr As‑Siddeeq رضى الله عنه ), the martyrs, and the righteous.” [al-Nisa’ 4:69]
These are the four degrees of Allaah’s slaves: the best of them are the Prophets, then the Siddeeqs, then the martyrs, then the righteous. End quote.
Majmoo’ al-Fataawa (2/223).
Allaah has made Paradise of varying levels or degrees, of which the Mujaahideen (those who strive in jihad) will have one hundred degrees, as it was narrated in al-Saheeh from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), therefore the martyrs are not all of the same status, rather they vary in status.
Ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) said, after listing the martyrs other than those who are killed in battle:
We have compiled from excellent sources more than twenty types…
Ibn al-Teen said: All of these ways of dying are painful. Allaah has favoured the ummah of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) by making it a means of purifying them from sin, increasing their reward and causing them to attain thereby the status of the martyrs.
I (Ibn Hajar) say: It seems that those mentioned are not all of the same status. This is indicated by the report narrated by Ahmad and Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh from Jaabir, and by al-Daarimi, Ahmad and al-Tahhaawi from ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Hubshi, and by Ibn Maajah from ‘Amr ibn ‘Anbasah: that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was asked: What type of jihad is best? He said: “The one whose horse is killed and whose blood is shed.” End quote.
Fath al-Baari (6/43, 44).
In the saheeh Sunnah there are reports from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) which indicate this difference in status among the martyrs.
It was narrated from Nu’aym ibn Hammaar that a man asked the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him): Which of the martyrs is best? He said: “Those who, when they took up their position in the ranks, did not turn their faces away until they were killed. They will be in the dwellings on high in Paradise, and their Lord smiles upon them, and when your Lord smiles upon a slave in this world, he will not be brought to account.”
Narrated by Ahmad (21970); classed as saheeh by Shaykh al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah (2558).
It was narrated that ‘Utbah ibn ‘Abdin al-Sulami said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The slain are of three types: (the first is) a believing man who fought with his life and his wealth for the sake of Allaah, and when he met the enemy he fought them until he was killed. That is the proud martyr who resides in the tent of Allaah beneath His Throne; the Prophets are no better than him except by virtue of their being Prophets. (The second is) a believing man who committed some sins, but he fought with his life and his wealth for the sake of Allaah, and when he met the enemy he fought until he was killed. His sins are erased, for the sword erases sins, and he will be admitted through whichever of the gates of Paradise he wishes, for it has eight gates, and Hell has seven gates, and some of them are better than others. (The third is) a hypocrite who strove with his life and his wealth, and when he met the enemy he fought for the sake of Allaah and was killed. He will be in Hell, for the sword does not erase hypocrisy.”
Narrated by Ahmad (17204). Its isnaad was classed as jayyid by al-Mundhiri in al-Targheeb wa’l-Tarheeb(2/208), and as hasan by al-Albaan in Saheeh al-Targheeb (1370).
It was narrated from ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Hubshi al-Khath’ami that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was asked: What type of jihad is best? He said: “The one who strives against the mushrikeen with his wealth and his life.” It was said: What kind of death is noblest? He said: “The one whose blood is shed and his horse is killed.” Narrated by Abu Dawood (1449) and al-Nasaa’i (2526); classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Targheeb (1318).
It was narrated from Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The leader of the martyrs is Hamzah ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib and a man who stood up before a tyrant and enjoined good and forbade evil, and he killed him.” Narrated by al-Haakim and classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah (374).
Volume 3, Book 33, Number 248:
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):
Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) asked the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) “I vowed in the Pre-lslamic period of ignorance to stay in Itikaf for one night in Al-Masjid al-Haram.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said to him, “Fulfill your vow.”
There are three main types of I`tikaaf:
- WAJIB: To vow or pledge to make I’tikaaf (on a fixed day) for the sake of Allah upon the fulfilment of some wish or desire.
- SUNNAT-MUAKKADAH: To reside the last ten nights and days of Ramadhan in the Masjid is Sunnat-Muakkadah, i.e. If a person from the community fulfills the obligation of I’tikaaf, the entire community will be absolved of this sacred duty. Otherwise all the residents will be sinful of neglecting this Sunnah.
- MUSTAHAB OR NAFL: This I’tikaaf can be for any amount of time, even for a few minutes.
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 209:
Narrated Um Al-Fadl bint Al-Harith (radiallaahu `anhu):
“While the people were with me on the day of ‘Arafat they differed as to whether the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was fasting or not; some said that he was fasting while others said that he was not fasting. So, I sent to him a bowl full of milk while he was riding over his camel and he drank it.”
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 210:
Narrated Maimuna (radiallaahu `anhaa):
The people doubted whether the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was fasting on the day of ‘Arafat or not, so I sent milk while he was standing at ‘Arafat, he drank it and the people were looking at him.
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 211:
Narrated Abu ‘Ubaid:
(the slave of Ibn Azhar) I witnessed the ‘Id with ‘Umar bin Al-Kattab (radiallaahu `anhu) who said, Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) has forbidden people to fast on the day on which you break fasting (the fasts of Ramadan) and the day on which you eat the meat of your sacrifices (the first day of ‘Id ul Fitr and ‘Id ul-Adha).
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 212:
Narrated Abu Sa’id (radiallaahu `anhu):
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) forbade the fasting of ‘Id-ul-Fitr and ‘Id-ul-Adha (two feast days) and also the wearing of As-Samma’ (a single garment covering the whole body), and sitting with one’s leg drawn up while being wrapped in one garment. He also forbade the prayers after the Fajr (morning) and the ‘Asr (afternoon) prayers.
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 213:
Narrated Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu):
Two fasts and two kinds of sale are forbidden: fasting on the day of ‘Id ul Fitr and ‘Id-ul-Adha and the kinds of sale called Mulamasa and Munabadha. (These two kinds of sale used to be practiced in the days of Pre-lslamic period of ignorance; Mulamasa means when you touch something displayed for sale you have to buy it; Munabadha means when the seller throws something to you, you have to buy it.)
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 214:
Narrated Ziyad bin Jubair:
A man went to Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) I. and said, “A man vowed to fast one day (the sub-narrator thinks that he said that the day was Monday), and that day happened to be ‘Id day.” Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “Allah orders vows to be fulfilled and the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) forbade the fasting on this day (i.e. Id).”
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 215:
Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri (radiallaahu `anhu):
(who fought in twelve Ghazawat in the company of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)). I heard four things from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and they won my admiration. He said;
1. “No lady should travel on a journey of two days except with her husband or a Dhi-Mahram;
2. “No fasting is permissible on the two days of Id-ul-Fitr and ‘Id-ul-Adha;
3. “No prayer (may be offered) after the morning compulsory prayer until the sun rises; and no prayer after the ‘Asr prayer till the sun sets;
4. “One should travel only for visiting three Masajid (Mosques): Masjid-ul-Haram (Mecca), Masjid-ul-Aqsa (Jerusalem), and this (my) Mosque (at Medina).”
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 216:
Narrated ‘Aisha and Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):
Nobody was allowed to fast on the days of Tashriq except those who could not afford the Hadi (Sacrifice).
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 217:
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):
Fasting for those who perform Hajj-at-Tamattu’ (in lieu of the Hadi which they cannot afford) may be performed up to the day of ‘Arafat. And if one does not get a Hadi and has not fasted (before the ‘Id) then one should fast of the days of Mina. (11, 12 and 13th of Dhul Hajja).
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 218:
Narrated Salim’s father:
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Whoever wishes may fast on the day of ‘Ashura’.”
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 219:
Narrated ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) ordered (the Muslims) to fast on the day of ‘Ashura’, and when fasting in the month of Ramadan was prescribed, it became optional for one to fast on that day (‘Ashura’) or not.
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 220:
Narrated Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):
Quraish used to fast on the day of ‘Ashura’ in the Pre-lslamic period, and Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) too, used to fast on that day. When he came to Medina, he fasted on that day and ordered others to fast, too. Later when the fasting of the month of Ramadan was prescribed, he gave up fasting on the day of ‘Ashura’ and it became optional for one to fast on it or not.
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 221:
Narrated Humaid bin ‘Abdur Rahman:
That he heard Muawiya bin Abi Sufyan (radiallaahu `anhu) on the day of ‘Ashura’ during the year he performed the Hajj, saying on the pulpit, “O the people of Medina! Where are your Religious Scholars? I heard Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) saying, ‘This is the day of ‘Ashura’. Allah has not enjoined its fasting on you but I am fasting it. You have the choice either to fast or not to fast (on this day).’ “
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 222:
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu):
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) came to Medina and saw the Jews fasting on the day of Ashura. He asked them about that. They replied, “This is a good day, the day on which Allah rescued Bani Israel from their enemy. So, Moses fasted this day.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “We have more claim over Moses than you.” So, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) fasted on that day and ordered (the Muslims) to fast (on that day).
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 223:
Narrated Abu Musa (radiallaahu `anhu):
The day of ‘Ashura’ was considered as ‘Id day by the Jews. So the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) ordered, “I recommend you (Muslims) to fast on this day.”
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 224:
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu):
I never saw the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) seeking to fast on a day more (preferable to him) than this day, the day of ‘Ashura’, or this month, i.e. the month of Ramadan.
Volume 3, Book 31, Number 225:
Narrated Salama bin Al-Akwa (radiallaahu `anhu):
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) ordered a man from the tribe of Bani Aslam to announce amongst the people that whoever had eaten should fast the rest of the day, and whoever had not eaten should continue his fast, as that day was the day of ‘Ashura’.
The categories of rulings are five: obligatory (waajib), forbidden (muharram), encouraged (mustahabb), disliked (makrooh) and permissible (mubaah).
1. Obligatory fasts
(i) The Ramadaan fast
(ii) Making up missed Ramadaan fasts
(iii) Expiatory fasts (expiation for accidental killing, expiation for zihaar (a form of jaahili divorce), expiation for having intercourse during the day in Ramadaan, and expiation for breaking an oath)
(iv) Fasting for the pilgrim who does tamattu’ in Hajj if he does not have a sacrificial animal. “and whosoever performs the ‘Umrah in the months of Hajj, before (performing) the Hajj, (i.e. Hajj-at-Tamattu‘ and Al-Qiraan), he must slaughter a Hady such as he can afford, but if he cannot afford it, he should observe Sawm (fasts) three days during the Hajj and seven days after his return (to his home)” [al-Baqarah 2:196 – interpretation of the meaning].
(v) Fasting in fulfilment of a vow
2. Mustahabb (encouraged) fasts
(i) Fasting the day of ‘Ashoora’
(ii) Fasting the day of ‘Arafah
(iii) Fasting on Mondays and Thursdays each week
(iv) Fasting three days of each month
(v) Fasting six days of Shawwaal
(vi) Fasting most of the month of Sha’baan
(vii) Fasting the month of Muharram
(viii) Fasting alternate days – which is the best of fasting
3. Makrooh (disliked) fasts
(i) Singling out Friday for fasting – because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Do not fast on a Friday unless you fast a day before or a day afterwards.” Agreed upon
(ii) Singling out Saturday for fasting – because the Messenger(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Do not fast on Saturdays apart from days when you are obliged to fast, even if one of you cannot find anything other than grape stalks or the bark of a tree (to suck on, to make sure that he is not fasting).” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 744, who classed it as hasan. Also narrated by Abu Dawood, 2421; Ibn Maajah, 1726; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Irwa’ al-Ghaleel, 960.
Al-Tirmidhi said: What is meant by its being makrooh is that a man should not single out Saturday for fasting because the Jews venerate Saturday. End quote.
4. Forbidden fasts
(i) Fasting on Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha and the days of Tashreeq, which are the three days after Eid al-Adha.
(ii) Fasting on the “day of doubt” – which is the thirtieth of Sha’baan, if the sky was cloudy and the new moon could not be sighted. But if the sky was clear there can be no doubt.
(iii) Fasts observed by women who are menstruating and bleeding following childbirth.
5. Permissible fasts – these are fasts that do not come under any of the four headings mentioned above.
What is meant by permissible here is that there is no report enjoining or forbidding fasting on this day in particular, such as Tuesdays and Wednesdays, even though in principle, observing a voluntary fast is an act of worship that is encouraged.
See al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah, 28/10-19; al-Sharh al-Mumti’, 6/457-483
Book of Fasting ends here.
Volume 2, Book 26, Number 628:
Jabir said, “The Prophet ordered Ali to keep on assuming his Ihram.” The narrator then informed about the narration of Suraqa.
Volume 2, Book 26, Number 629:
Narrated Anas bin Malik:
Ali came to the Prophet (p.b.u.h) from Yemen (to Mecca). The Prophet asked Ali, “With what intention have you assumed Ihram?” Ali replied, “I have assumed Ihram with the same intention as that of the Prophet.” The Prophet said, “If I had not the Hadi with me I would have finished the Ihram.” Muhammad bin Bakr narrated extra from Ibn Juraij, “The Prophet said to Ali, “With what intention have you assumed the Ihram, O Ali?” He replied, “With the same (intention) as that of the Prophet.” The Prophet said, “Have a Hadi and keep your Ihram as it is.”
Volume 2, Book 26, Number 630:
Narrated Abu Musa:
The Prophet sent me to some people in Yemen and when I returned, I found him at Al-Batha. He asked me, “With what intention have you assumed Ihram (i.e. for Hajj or for Umra or for both?”) I replied, “I have assumed Ihram with an intention like that of the Prophet.” He asked, “Have you a Hadi with you?” I replied in the negative. He ordered me to perform Tawaf round the Ka’ba and between Safa and Marwa and then to finish my Ihram. I did so and went to a woman from my tribe who combed my hair or washed my head. Then, when Umar came (i.e. became Caliph) he said, “If we follow Allah’s Book, it orders us to complete Hajj and Umra; as Allah says: “Perform the Hajj and Umra for Allah.” (2.196). And if we follow the tradition of the Prophet who did not finish his Ihram till he sacrificed his Hadi.”
Volume 2, Book 26, Number 631:
Narrated Al-Qasim bin Muhammad:
‘ Aisha said, “We set out with Allah’s Apostles in the months of Hajj, and (in) the nights of Hajj, and at the time and places of Hajj and in a state of Hajj. We dismounted at Sarif (a village six miles from Mecca). The Prophet then addressed his companions and said, “Anyone who has not got the Hadi and likes to do Umra instead of Hajj may do so (i.e. Hajj-al-Tamattu) and anyone who has got the Hadi should not finish the Ihram after performing ‘ Umra). (i.e. Hajj-al-Qiran). Aisha added, “The companions of the Prophet obeyed the above (order) and some of them (i.e. who did not have Hadi) finished their Ihram after Umra.” Allah’s Apostle and some of his companions were resourceful and had the Hadi with them, they could not perform Umra (alone) (but had to perform both Hajj and Umra with one Ihram). Aisha added, “Allah’s Apostle came to me and saw me weeping and said, “What makes you weep, O Hantah?” I replied, “I have heard your conversation with your companions and I cannot perform the Umra.” He asked, “What is wrong with you?’ I replied, ‘ I do not offer the prayers (i.e. I have my menses).’ He said, ‘ It will not harm you for you are one of the daughters of Adam, and Allah has written for you (this state) as He has written it for them. Keep on with your intentions for Hajj and Allah may reward you that.” Aisha further added, “Then we proceeded for Hajj till we reached Mina and I became clean from my menses. Then I went out from Mina and performed Tawaf round the Ka’ba.” Aisha added, “I went along with the Prophet in his final departure (from Hajj) till he dismounted at Al-Muhassab (a valley outside Mecca), and we too, dismounted with him.” He called ‘ Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Bakr and said to him, ‘ Take your sister outside the sanctuary of Mecca and let her assume Ihram for ‘ Umra, and when you had finished ‘ Umra, return to this place and I will wait for you both till you both return to me.’ ” ‘ Aisha added, ‘ ‘ So we went out of the sanctuary of Mecca and after finishing from the ‘ Umra and the Tawaf we returned to the Prophet at dawn. He said, ‘Have you performed the ‘ Umra?’ We replied in the affirmative. So he announced the departure amongst his companions and the people set out for the journey, and the Prophet: too left for Medina.”
Volume 2, Book 26, Number 632:
‘ Aisha said, We went out with the Prophet (from Medina) with the intention of performing Hajj only and when we reached Mecca we performed Tawaf round the Kaba and then the Prophet ordered those who had not driven the Hadi along with them to finish their Ihram. So the people who had not driven the Hadi along with them finished their Ihram. The Prophet’s wives, too, had not driven the Hadi with them, so they too, finished their Ihram.” ‘Aisha added, “I got my menses and could not perform Tawaf round the Ka’ba.” So when it was the night of Hasba (i.e. when we stopped at Al-Muhassab), I said, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! Everyone is returning after performing Hajj and ‘Umra but I am returning after performing Hajj only.’ He said, ‘Didn’t you perform Tawaf round the Ka’ba the night we reached Mecca?’ I replied in the negative. He said, ‘Go with your brother to Tan’im and assume the Ihram for’Umra, (and after performing it) come back to such and such a place.’ On that Safiya said, ‘I feel that I will detain you all.’ The Prophet said, ‘O ‘Aqra Halqa! Didn’t you perform Tawaf of the Ka’ba on the day of sacrifice? (i.e. Tawaf-al-ifada) Safiya replied in the affirmative. He said, (to Safiya). ‘There is no harm for you to proceed on with us.’ ” ‘Aisha added, “(after returning from ‘Umra), the Prophet met me while he was ascending (from Mecca) and I was descending to it, or I was ascending and he was descending.”
Volume 2, Book 26, Number 633:
We set out with Allah’s Apostles (to Mecca) in the year of the Prophet’s Last Hajj. Some of us had assumed Ihram for ‘Umra only, some for both Hajj and ‘Umra, and others for Hajj only. Allah’s Apostle assumed Ihram for Hajj. So whoever had assumed Ihram for Hajj or for both Hajj and ‘Umra did not finish the Ihram till the day of sacrifice. (See Hadith No. 631, 636, and 639).
Volume 2, Book 26, Number 634:
Narrated Marwan bin Al-Hakam:
I saw ‘Uthman and ‘Ali. ‘Uthman used to forbid people to perform Hajj-at-Tamattu’ and Hajj-al-Qiran (Hajj and ‘Umra together), and when ‘Ali saw (this act of ‘Uthman), he assumed Ihram for Hajj and ‘Umra together saying, “Lubbaik for ‘Umra and Hajj,” and said, “I will not leave the tradition of the Prophet on the saying of somebody.”
Volume 2, Book 26, Number 635:
Narrated Ibn Abbas:
The people (of the Pre-lslamic Period) used to think that to perform ‘Umra during the months of Hajj was one of the major sins on earth. And also used to consider the month of Safar as a forbidden (i.e. sacred) month and they used to say, “When the wounds of the camel’s back heal up (after they return from Hajj) and the signs of those wounds vanish and the month of Safar passes away then (at that time) ‘Umra is permissible for the one who wishes to perform it.” In the morning of the 4th of Dhul-Hijja, the Prophet and his companions reached Mecca, assuming Ihram for Hajj and he ordered his companions to make their intentions of the Ihram for’Umra only (instead of Hajj) so they considered his order as something great and were puzzled, and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! What kind (of finishing) of Ihram is allowed?” The Prophet replied, “Finish the Ihram completely like a non-Muhrim (you are allowed everything).”
Volume 2, Book 26, Number 636:
Narrated Abu Musa:
came to the Prophet (from Yemen and was assuming Ihram for Hajj) and he ordered me to finish the Ihram (after performing the ‘Umra).
Volume 2, Book 26, Number 637:
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:
Hafsa the wife of the Prophet said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Why have the people finished their Ihram after performing ‘Umra but you have not finished your Ihram after performing ‘Umra?” He replied, “I have matted my hair and garlanded my Hadi. So I will not finish my Ihram till I have slaughtered (my Hadi). “
Volume 2, Book 26, Number 638:
Abu Jamra Nasr bin ‘Imran Ad-Duba’i said, “I intended to perform Hajj-at-Tamattu’ and the people advised me not to do so. I asked Ibn Abbas regarding it and he ordered me to perform Hajj-at-Tammatu’. Later I saw in a dream someone saying to me, ‘Hajj-Mabrur (Hajj performed in accordance with the Prophet’s tradition without committing sins and accepted by Allah) and an accepted ‘Umra.’ So I told that dream to Ibn Abbas. He said, ‘This is the tradition of Abu-l-Qasim.’ Then he said to me, ‘Stay with me and I shall give you a portion of my property.’ ” I (Shu’ba) asked, “Why (did he invite you)?” He (Abu Jamra) said, “Because of the dream which I had seen.”
Volume 2, Book 26, Number 639:
Narrated Abu Shihab:
I left for Mecca for Hajj-at-Tamattu’ assuming Ihram for ‘Umra. I reached Mecca three days before the day of Tarwiya (8th Dhul-Hijja). Some people of Mecca said to me, “Your Hajj will be like the Hajj performed by the people of Mecca (i.e. you will lose the superiority of assuming Ihram from the Miqat). So I went to ‘Ata’ asking him his view about it. He said, “Jabir bin ‘Abdullah narrated to me, ‘I performed Hajj with Allah’s Apostle on the day when he drove camels with him. The people had assumed Ihram for Hajj-al-Ifrad. The Prophet ordered them to finish their Ihram after Tawaf round the Ka’ba, and between Safa and Marwa and to cut short their hair and then to stay there (in Mecca) as non-Muhrims till the day of Tarwiya (i.e. 8th of Dhul-Hijja) when they would assume Ihram for Hajj and they were ordered to make the Ihram with which they had come as for ‘Umra only. They asked, ‘How can we make it ‘Umra (Tamattu’) as we have intended to perform Hajj?’ The Prophet said, ‘Do what I have ordered you. Had I not brought the Hadi with me, I would have done the same, but I cannot finish my Ihram till the Hadi reaches its destination (i.e. is slaughtered).’ So, they did (what he ordered them to do).”
Volume 2, Book 26, Number 640:
Narrated Said bin Al-Musaiyab:
‘Ali and ‘Uthman differed regarding Hajj-at-Tamattu’ while they were at ‘Usfan (a familiar place near Mecca). ‘Ali said, “I see you want to forbid people to do a thing that the Prophet did?” When ‘Ali saw that, he assumed Ihram for both Hajj and ‘Umra.
Volume 2, Book 26, Number 641:
Narrated Jabir bin ‘Abdullah :
We came with Allah’s Apostle (to Mecca) and we were saying: ‘Labbaika Allahumma Labbaik’ for Hajj. Allah’s Apostle ordered us to perform ‘Umra with that Ihram (instead of Hajj).
Volume 2, Book 26, Number 642:
We performed Hajj-at-Tamattu’ in the lifetime of Allah’s Apostle and then the Quran was revealed (regarding Hajj-at-Tamattu’) and somebody said what he wished (regarding Hajj-at-Tamattu’) according his own opinion.
Narrated Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):
(the wife of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) We set out with the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) in his last Hajj and we assumed Ihram for Umra. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) then said, “Whoever has the Hadi with him should assume Ihram for Hajj along with ‘Umra and should not finish the Ihram till he finishes both.” I was menstruating when I reached Mecca, and so I neither did Tawaf round the Ka’ba nor Tawaf between Safa and Marwa. I complained about that to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) on which he replied, “Undo and comb your head hair, and assume Ihram for Hajj (only) and leave the Umra.” So, I did so. When we had performed the Hajj, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) sent me with my brother ‘Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) to Tan’im. So I performed the ‘Umra. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said to me, “This ‘Umra is instead of your missed one.” Those who had assumed Ihram for ‘Umra (Hajj-atTamattu) performed Tawaf round the Ka’ba and between Safa and Marwa and then finished their Ihram. After returning from Mina, they performed another Tawaf (between Safa and Marwa). Those who had assumed Ihram for Hajj and ‘Umra together (Hajj-al-Qiran) performed only one Tawaf (between Safa and Marwa).
Know more about the types of Hajj so it’s easier to understand the itsy bitsy details.
Every time I come across this incident, I just marvel at the caring husband that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was. He could have easily told `Aa’isha (radiallaahu `anhaa) to just let it be and make sure to not come for Hajj during her menstruation. He could have been irritated with her. But he wasn’t. He didn’t say any reproachful words to her (“You and your problems! -_-“, for example..). Rather he sent her with her brother especially so she could complete her manaasik. And he reassured her that her missed `Umrah had been covered for. Considerate he was. :)