إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحاً مُّبِيناً
“Verily, We have given you a manifest victory.” [Quran, 48:1]
From Tafsir Ibn Kathir:
This honorable Surah [al-Fath] was revealed after the Messenger of Allah returned from the area of Al-Hudaybiyyah, during the month of Dhul-Qa`dah, in the sixth year of Hijrah. This is when the idolators prevented him from reaching Al-Masjid Al-Haram to perform the `Umrah he intended. They stopped the Prophet from reaching Makkah at that time, but then were prone to peace negotiations. A peace treaty was conducted stipulating that the Messenger would return this year and then come back for `Umrah the following year. The Messenger agreed. However, some of the Companions disliked these terms, including `Umar bin Al-Khattab, as we will mention in detail, Allah willing, while explaining this Surah. After the Prophet slaughtered his sacrificial animals in the area where he was stopped and headed back to Al-Madinah, Allah the Exalted and Most Honored revealed this Surah about what occurred between him and the idolators. Allah declared the Al-Hudaybiyyah peace treaty a manifest victory, because of the benefits peace would carry and the good results that did originate from it. `Abdullah bin Mas`ud and other Companions said, “You consider the conquering of Makkah to be Al-Fath (the victory), while to us, Al-Fath is the treaty conducted at Al-Hلudaybiyyah.” Jabir (bin `Abdullah) said, “We only considered Al-Fath to be the day of Hلudaybiyyah!” Al-Bukhari recorded that Al-Bara’ (bin `Azib) said, “You consider Al-Fath to be the conquest of Makkah, which was indeed a victory. However, we consider Al-Fath to be the pledge of Ar-Ridwan on the Day of Al-Hudaybiyyah. Then, we were fourteen hundred with the Messenger of Allah . Al-Hudaybiyyah had a well, whose water we consumed, not leaving a drop of water in it. When the news of what happened reached the Messenger of Allah , he came towards us and sat on the edge of the well. Then he asked to be brought a bucket of water and used it for ablution. He next rinsed his mouth, invoked Allah and poured that water into the well. Soon after, that well provided us, as well as our animals, with sufficient water, in whatever amount of water we wished. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, “We were with the Messenger of Allah on a trip, and I asked him about a matter three times, but he did not answer me. So I said to myself, `May your mother lose you, O son of Al-Khattab! You were stubborn in repeating your question three times to the Messenger of Allah ; each time he did not respond to you.’ So I mounted my animal, my camel, and went ahead for fear that a part of the Qur’an might be revealed in my case. Suddenly, I heard a caller calling, `O `Umar!’ So, I went to the Messenger while fearing that part of the Qur’an was revealed about me. The Prophet said,
«نَزَلَ عَلَيَّ الْبَارِحَةَ سُورَةٌ هِيَ أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا وَمَا فِيهَا:
﴿إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحاً مُّبِيناً لِّيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِن ذَنبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ﴾»
(Last night, a Surah was revealed to me that is dearer to me than this life and all that it contains: (Verily, We have given you a manifest victory. That Allah may forgive you your sins of the past and the future.)) Al-Bukhari, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i collected this Hadith from several chains of narration through Malik, may Allah grant him His mercy. `Ali bin Al-Madini commented, “This is a good chain of narration consisting of the scholars of Al-Madinah.” Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas bin Malik said, “This Ayah was revealed to the Prophet ,
﴿لِّيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِن ذَنبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ﴾
(That Allah may forgive you your sins of the past and the future,) on his return from Al-Hudaybiyyah. The Prophet said,
«لَقَدْ أُنْزِلَتْ عَلَيَّ اللَّيْلَةَ آيَةٌ أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِمَّا عَلَى الْأَرْض»
(Tonight, an Ayah, that is dearer to me than all that the earth carries, was revealed to me.) The Prophet recited the Ayah to them. They said, `Congratulations, O Allah’s Messenger! Allah the Exalted and Most Honored has stated what He will do with you. So what will He do with us’ These Ayat were revealed to the Prophet ,
﴿لِّيُدْخِلَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَـتِ جَنَّـتٍ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا الاٌّنْهَـرُ﴾
(That He may admit the believing men and the believing women to Gardens under which rivers flow. ..), until,
(…a supreme success.)” This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs. Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah said, “The Prophet used to pray until both his feet were swollen. He was asked, `Has not Allah forgiven you all your sins of the past and of future’ He said,
«أَفَلَا أَكُونُ عَبْدًا شَكُورًا؟»
(Should I not be a thankful servant)” The two collectors of the Sahihs collected this Hadith, as well as, the rest of the Group, except Abu Dawud. Allah’s statement,
﴿إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحاً مُّبِيناً ﴾
(Verily, We have given you a manifest victory.) means, clear and apparent victory. This Ayah is about the treaty at Al-Hudaybiyyah, which resulted in great goodness, including people embracing Islam in large crowds and having the chance to meet each other openly. During that time, the believers preached to the idolators and thus beneficial knowledge and faith spread all around.
Volume 3, Book 49, Number 862 :
Narrated by Al-Bara bin ‘Azib (radiallaahu `anhu)
When Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) concluded a peace treaty with the people of Hudaibiya, Ali bin Abi Talib (radiallaahu `anhu) wrote the document and he mentioned in it, “Muhammad, Allah’s Apostle .” The pagans said, “Don’t write: ‘Muhammad, Allah’s Apostle’, for if you were an apostle we would not fight with you.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) asked Ali to rub it out, but Ali (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “I will not be the person to rub it out.” Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) rubbed it out and made peace with them on the condition that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and his companions would enter Mecca and stay there for three days, and that they would enter with their weapons in cases.
- Write down your contracts/agreements/treaties.
- Compromise for peace – not in your religion though!
Volume 3, Book 49, Number 863 :
Narrated by Al-Bara (radiallaahu `anhu)
When the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) intended to perform ‘Umra in the month of Dhul-Qada, the people of Mecca did not let him enter Mecca till he settled the matter with them by promising to stay in it for three days only. When the document of treaty was written, the following was mentioned: ‘These are the terms on which Muhammad, Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) agreed (to make peace).’ They said, “We will not agree to this, for if we believed that you are Allah’s Apostle we would not prevent you, but you are Muhammad bin ‘Abdullah.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “I am Allah’s Apostle and also Muhammad bin ‘Abdullah.” Then he said to ‘Ali (radiallaahu `anhu), “Rub off (the words) ‘Allah’s Apostle’ “, but ‘Ali said, “No, by Allah, I will never rub off your name.” So, Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) took the document and wrote, ‘This is what Muhammad bin ‘Abdullah has agreed upon: No arms will be brought into Mecca except in their cases, and nobody from the people of Mecca will be allowed to go with him (i.e. the Prophet ) even if he wished to follow him and he (the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)) will not prevent any of his companions from staying in Mecca if the latter wants to stay.’ When the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) entered Mecca and the time limit passed, the Meccans went to ‘Ali (radiallaahu `anhu) and said, “Tell your Friend (i.e. the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)) to go out, as the period (agreed to) has passed.” So, the Prophet went out of Mecca. The daughter of Hamza ran after them (i.e. the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and his companions), calling, “O Uncle! O Uncle!” ‘Ali (radiallaahu `anhu) received her and led her by the hand and said to Fatima, “Take your uncle’s daughter.” Zaid and Ja’far (radiallaahu `anhumaa) quarreled about her. ‘Ali (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “I have more right to her as she is my uncle’s daughter.” Ja’far (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “She is my uncle’s daughter, and her aunt is my wife.” Zaid (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “She is my brother’s daughter.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) judged that she should be given to her aunt, and said that the aunt was like the mother. He then said to ‘Ali (radiallaahu `anhu), “You are from me and I am from you”, and said to Ja’far (radiallaahu `anhu), “You resemble me both in character and appearance”, and said to Zaid (radiallaahu `anhu), “You are our brother (in faith) and our freed slave.”
- Mother’s sister (aunt) is like a mother.
- Notice how Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) makes everyone happy in the end by complimenting them in one way or the other. Making the right decisions doesn’t necessarily give you enemies.
Volume 3, Book 49, Number 864 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) set out for the ‘Umra but the pagans of Quraish prevented him from reaching the Ka’ba. So, he slaughtered his sacrifice and got his head shaved at Al-Hudaibiya, and agreed with them that he would perform ‘Umra the following year and would not carry weapons except swords and would not stay in Mecca except for the period they allowed. So, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) performed the ‘Umra in the following year and entered Mecca according to the treaty, and when he stayed for three days, the pagans ordered him to depart, and he departed.
- Respect your agreements, promises, oaths etc. Come through.
- Know your Seerah!
Narrated Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):
I said, “O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! Shouldn’t we participate in Holy battles and Jihad along with you?” He replied, “The best and the most superior Jihad (for women) is Hajj which is accepted by Allah.” ‘Aisha added: Ever since I heard that from Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) I have determined not to miss Hajj.
Jihaad against the kuffaar by fighting is not obligatory for women, but they must make jihaad by calling others to the truth (da’wah) and teaching them about Islam, within the limits that will protect them and wearing the clothes that cover their ‘awrah. They should not mix with non-mahram men or speak in soft voices or be alone with non-mahram men. Allaah said concerning the wives of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him):
“And remember (O you members of the Prophet’s family), the Graces of your Lord), that which is recited in your houses of the Verses of Allaah and Al-Hikmah (i.e. Prophet’s Sunnah)” [al-Ahzaab 33:34]
It was reported that ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said: I said, O Messenger of Allaah, do women have to do any kind of jihaad? He said, “Yes, they have to do the kind of jihaad in which there is no fighting: Hajj and ‘Umrah.” (Reported by Ahmad, 6/68; Ibn Maajah, 2/968).
Narrated Al-Bara (radiallaahu `anhu):
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) assumed Ihram for Umra in the month of Dhul-Qa’da but the (pagan) people of Mecca refused to admit him into Mecca till he agreed on the condition that he would not bring into Mecca any arms but sheathed.
Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) agreed to the condition put forward by the pagans in order to be able to do `Umrah. It makes sense that he did that since the Quraysh were the custodians of Ka`bah at that time, so they had the authority.
Nowadays, the Saudi government is responsible for the pilgrims, so if they put forward any terms and conditions for those who intend to perform Hajj/`Umrah, the latter should comply. :)
Correct answer to yesterday’s question: Safiyah bint Abu `Ubaid was Ibn `Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)’s wife.
Kitaab-ul-Muhsar [Book of Pilgrims Prevented from Completing the Pilgrimage] starts today.
Volume 3, Book 28, Number 33:
When Abdullah bin Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) set out for Mecca intending to perform Umra, at the time of afflictions, he said, “If I should be prevented from reaching the Kaba, then I would do the same as Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) did, so I assume the lhram for Umra as Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) assumed the Ihram for Umra in the year of Hudaibiya.”
Volume 3, Book 28, Number 34:
That Ubaidullah bin ‘Abdullah and Salim bin ‘Abdullah informed him that they told Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) when Ibn Az-Zubair was attacked by the army, saying “There is no harm for you if you did not perform Hajj this year. We are afraid that you may be prevented from reaching the Kaba.” Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said “We set out with Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and the non-believers of Quraish prevented us from reaching the Ka’ba, and so the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) slaughtered his Hadi and got his head shaved.” Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) added, “I make you witnesses that I have made ‘Umra obligatory for me. And, Allah willing, I will go and then if the way to Ka’ba is clear, I will perform the Tawaf, but if I am prevented from going to the Ka’ba then I will do the same as the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) did while I was in his company.” Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) then assumed Ihram for Umra from Dhul-Hulaifa and proceeded for a while and said, “The conditions of ‘Umra and Hajj are similar and I make you witnesses that I have made ‘Umra and Hajj obligatory for myself.” So, he did not finish the Ihram till the day of Nahr (slaughtering) came, and he slaughtered his Hadi. He used to say, “I will not finish the Ihram till I perform the Tawaf, one Tawaf on the day of entering Mecca (i.e. of Safa and Marwa for both ‘Umra and Hajj).”
Volume 3, Book 28, Number 35:
Narrated Nafi: Some of the sons of ‘Abdullah told him (i.e. ‘Abdullah) if he had stayed (and not performed Hajj that year).
Volume 3, Book 28, Number 36:
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu):
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was prevented from performing (‘Umra) Therefore, he shaved his head and had sexual relations with his wives and slaughtered his Hadi and performed Umra in the following year.
Volume 3, Book 28, Number 37:
(Abdullah) bin ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) used to say, “Is not (the following of) the tradition of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) sufficient for you? If anyone of you is prevented from performing Hajj, he should perform the Tawaf of the Ka’ba and between As-Safa and Al-Marwa and then finish the Ihram and everything will become legal for him which was illegal for him (during the state of Ihram) and he can perform Hajj in a following year and he should slaughter a Hadi or fast in case he cannot afford the Hadi.”
Volume 3, Book 28, Number 38:
Narrated Al-Miswar (radiallaahu `anhu):
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) slaughtered (the Hadi) before he had his head shaved and then he ordered his Companions to do the same.
Volume 3, Book 28, Number 39:
That Abdullah and Salim said to ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu), “(You should not go for Hajj this year).” ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) replied, “We set out with the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) (to Mecca for performing ‘Umra) and the infidels of Quraish prevented us from reaching the Ka’ba. Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) slaughtered his Budn (camels for sacrifice) and got his head shaved.”
Volume 3, Book 28, Number 40:
When Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) set out for Mecca with the intentions performing ‘Umra in the period of afflictions, he said, “If I should be prevented from reaching the Ka’ba, then I would do the same as we did while in the company of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam).” So, he assumed the Ihram for ‘Umra since the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had assumed the Ihram for ‘Umra in the year of Al-Hudaibiya. Then ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) thought about it and said, “The conditions for both Hajj and ‘Umra are similar.” He then turned towards his companions and said, “The conditions of both Hajj and ‘Umra are similar and I make you witnesses that I have made the performance of Hajj obligatory for myself along with ‘Umra.” He then performed one Tawaf (between As-Safa and Al-Marwa) for both of them (i.e. Hajj and (‘Umra) and considered that to be sufficient for him and offered a Hadi.
This has been discussed before. Anyone who makes the intention of Hajj, enters Ihraam and then is prevented from reaching the Ka`bah to perform the rituals of Hajj/`Umrah, may exit Ihraam by cutting/shaving his hair and slaughtering the hadiy (if he has any).
Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) was asked about a man who did Hajj without a permit, and he was prevented from entering Makkah. What does he have to do?
If he said when entering ihraam, “If I am prevented (from completing Hajj), then I will exit ihraam at the point at which I am prevented”, then he may exit ihraam and he does not have to do anything else. But if he did not stipulate that, then he has to slaughter a hadiy because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “But if you are prevented (from completing them), sacrifice a Hady (animal, i.e. a sheep, a cow, or a camel) such as you can afford” [al-Baqarah 2:196], and he should exit ihraam (i.e., shave his head or cut his hair) at the point where he is prevented from continuing. End quote.
Majmoo’ Fataawa Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (23/433).
Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) was asked about a woman who entered ihraam then cancelled her ‘umrah, then she did another ‘umrah a few days after that. Is this action correct? What is the ruling on the things she did that are forbidden in ihraam?
This action is not correct, because once a person starts to do Hajj or ‘Umrah, it is haraam for him to cancel it unless that is for a valid shar’i reason. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And perform properly (i.e. all the ceremonies according to the ways of Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم), the Hajj and ‘Umrah (i.e. the pilgrimage to Makkah) for Allaah. But if you are prevented (from completing them), sacrifice a Hady (animal, i.e. a sheep, a cow, or a camel) such as you can afford” [al-Baqarah 2:196]. This woman has to repent to Allaah for what she has done, but her ‘umrah is valid, because even though she cancelled her ‘umrah, ‘umrah cannot be cancelled, and this is something that applies only to Hajj and ‘Umrah. If the person who is doing ‘umrah decides during the ‘umrah to cancel it, it is not cancelled, or if he decides to cancel Hajj whilst he is getting dressed for Hajj, it is not cancelled. Hence the scholars said that the rituals (of Hajj and ‘umrah) cannot be cancelled.
Based on this, we say: This woman is still in a state of ihraam, from the time when she formed the intention until she completes ‘umrah, and her intention to cancel it has no effect, rather she is still in ihraam.
To sum up: With regard to this woman we say: Her ‘umrah is valid, but she should not try to cancel ihraam again, because if she cancels ihraam, she cannot free herself from it. With regard to what she has done of forbidden things, let us assume that her husband had intercourse with her, and intercourse during ihraam is one of the most serious of forbidden things, but she does not have to do anything, because she was ignorant (of the ruling), and everyone who does one of the things that are forbidden in ihraam out of ignorance or by mistake or because they are forced to do so does not have to do anything (i.e. offer expiation). End quote from Majmoo’ Fataawa Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (21/351).
Narrated Zaid bin Aslam from his father:
I was with Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) on the way to Mecca, and he got the news that Safiya bint Abu Ubaid was seriously ill. So, he hastened his pace, and when the twilight disappeared, he dismounted and offered the Maghrib and ‘Isha’ prayers together. Then he said, “I saw that whenever the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had to hasten when traveling, he would delay the Maghrib prayer and join them together (i.e. offer the Maghrib and the Isha prayers together).”
We know that prayers are shortened during travel only. But what about combining prayers? Does a person have to be travelling in order to combine two prayers, or is it allowed otherwise as well? Here’s a general answer from IslamQA:
It is not permissible for a Muslim man or woman to delay an obligatory prayer beyond the proper time, rather every accountable Muslim man and woman is obliged to perform the prayers on time as much as they can.
Work is not an excuse for delaying prayer, neither is impurity on clothes or clothes being dirty. None of these are acceptable excuses.
People should be excused from work at prayer times; at the time of prayer a worker has to wash the impurity from his clothes, or change into clean clothes. As for regular dirt (as opposed to impurities), this does not prevent one from praying in those clothes, so long as that dirt is not impure and does not have an offensive smell that would bother other worshippers. But if the dirt or its smell will bother others, then he has to wash it before praying, or change into clean clothes so that he can pray in congregation.
It is permissible for those who have legitimate shar’i excuses, such as those who are sick or are travelling, to combine Zuhr and ‘Asr at the time of either of them, and to combine Maghrib and ‘Isha’ at the time of either of them.
This was narrated in the saheeh Sunnah of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). It is also permissible to join prayers when there is heavy rain or mud, which cause difficulty for people.
P.S. given below is a ‘general knowledge’ question for you.. Test yourself.