Hadith no. 2676 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 279 :
Narrated by Abu Ishaq
A man asked Al-Bara (radiallaahu `anhu), “O Abu ‘Umara! Did you flee on the day (of the battle) of Hunain?” Al-Bara (radiallaahu `anhu) replied while I was listening, “As for Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) he did not flee on that day. Abu Sufyan bin Al-Harith was holding the reins of his mule and when the pagans attacked him, he dismounted and started saying, ‘I am the Prophet, and there is no lie about it; I am the son of ‘Abdul Muttalib.’ On that day nobody was seen braver than the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)'”.
Volume 4, Book 52, Number 280 :
Narrated by Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri (radiallaahu `anhu)
When the tribe of Bani Quraiza was ready to accept Sa`d’s (radiallaahu `anhu) judgment, Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) sent for Sa`d (radiallaahu `anhu) who was near to him. Sa`d (radiallaahu `anhu) came, riding a donkey and when he came near, Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said (to the Ansar), “Stand up for your leader.” Then Sa`d (radiallaahu `anhu) came and sat beside Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) who said to him. “These people are ready to accept your judgment.” Sa`d (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “I give the judgment that their warriors should be killed and their children and women should be taken as prisoners.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) then remarked, “O Sa`d! You have judged amongst them with (or similar to) the judgment of the King Allah.”
Ruling on standing up for who comes in..
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah gave a detailed answer to this question based on shar’i evidence:
It was not the custom of the salaf at the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and the Rightly-Guided Caliphs to stand up every time they saw him [the Prophet] (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), as many people do. Rather Anas ibn Maalik said: “No person was dearer to them than the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), but when they saw him they did not stand up for him because they knew that he disliked that.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 2754; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi. But they may have stood up for one who was returning from away, in order to greet him, as it was narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) stood up for ‘Ikrimah, and he said to the Ansaar when Sa’d ibn Mu’aadh came: “Stand up for your chief.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 3043; Muslim, 1768. That was when he [Sa’d] came to pass judgement on Banu Qurayzah, because they said that would accept his verdict.
What people should do is get accustomed to following the salaf in their customs at the time of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), for they are the best of generations and the best of speech is the Word of Allaah, and the best of guidance is the guidance of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). No one should turn away from the guidance of the best of mankind and the guidance of the best of generations and follow something that is inferior to it. And the chief or leader should not approve of that among his companions, so that when they see him they should not stand up for him, rather they should simply greet him in the usual manner.
With regard to standing up for one who has come from a journey and the like, to greet him, that is fine. If it is the custom of the people to honour one who comes by standing up for him, and if that may make him feel insulted if they do not do it, and he does not know the custom that is in accordance with the Sunnah, then it is better to stand up for him, because that will create a good relationship between them and will remove rancour and hatred. But if a person is familiar with the custom of some people that is in accordance with the Sunnah, not doing that will not offend him.
Standing up for a newcomer is not the standing mentioned in the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him): “Whoever likes the people to stand up for him, let him take his place in Hell.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 2755; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi. That refers to when they stand up for him when he is seated; it does not refer to when they stand up to welcome him when he comes. Hence the scholars differentiated between the two types of standing, because those who stand up to greet a newcomer are equal with him, unlike those who stand for one who remains seated.
It was proven in Saheeh Muslim that when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) led them in prayer sitting down, because he was ill, and they prayed standing, he told them to sit down and said: “Do not venerate me as the Persians venerate one another.” And he forbade them to stand in prayer whilst he was sitting, lest they resemble the Persians who used to stand for their leaders whilst the leaders were seated. In conclusion, the best is to follow the customs and attitude and views of the salaf as much as possible.
If a person does not believe in that and is not familiar with this custom, and if not dealing with him in the manner in which people are accustomed to showing respect will lead to a greater evil, then we should ward off the greater of two evils by doing the lesser of them, and do that which serves a greater interest at the expense that which serves the lesser interest.
How should we greet scholars and leaders?
The correct way to greet scholars is to greet them with salaam and shake their hand. Many ahaadeeth have been narrated concerning the virtue of these actions. It is also permissible to kiss their heads or hands sometimes, but that should not be taken as a habit or custom, especially if it is done instead of shaking hands.
With regard to embracing, that is permissible when someone comes from a journey or after a long absence, or to express one’s deep love for the sake of Allaah and so on.
Muslim (54) narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “By the One in Whose hand is my soul, you will not enter Paradise until you believe, and you will not believe until you love one another. Shall I not tell you something which, if you do it, you will love one another? Spread the greeting of salaam amongst yourselves.”
And it was narrated that Qataadah said: I said to Anas: Did the companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) shake hands with one another? He said: Yes. Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 5908.
And it was narrated that Anas said: When the companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) met they would shake hands with one another, and if they came from a journey they would embrace one another.
Narrated by al-Tabaraani in al-Awsat (1/37); classed as saheeh by Shaykh al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah, 2647.
It was narrated from ‘Awn ibn Abi Juhayfah that his father said: When Ja’far came after he had migrated to Abyssinia, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) embraced him and kissed him between the eyes.
Narrated by al-Tabaraani in al-Kabeer (2/108); there are many corroborating reports which were mentioned by al-Haafiz ibn Hajar in al-Talkhees al-Habeer, 4/96/ it was classed as saheeh by Shaykh al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah, 2657.
It was narrated that Usaamah ibn Shareek said: We stood up for the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and kissed his hand.
Narrated by Abu Bakr ibn al-Muqqari in Juz’ Taqbeel al-Yad, p. 58. Al-Haafiz ibn Hajar said: Its isnaad is qawiy. Fath al-Baari, 11/56
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Volume 3, Book 47, Number 799:
Narrated Ibn Shihab Az-Zuhri:
Anas bin Malik (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “When the emigrants came Medina, they had nothing whereas the Ansar had land and property. The Ansar gave them their land on condition that the emigrants would give them half the yearly yield and work on the land and provide the necessaries for cultivation.” His (i.e. Anas’s mother who was also the mother of ‘Abdullah bin Abu Talha, gave some date-palms to Allah’ Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) who gave them to his freed slave-girl (Um Aiman) who was also the mother of Usama bin Zaid (radiallaahu `anhu). When the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) finished from the fighting against the people of Khaibar and returned to Medina, the emigrants returned to the Ansar the fruit gifts which the Ansar had given them. The Prophet also returned to Anas’s mother the date-palms. Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) gave Um Aiman other trees from his garden in lieu of the old gift.
He could have just taken the trees back from her without giving any explanation and she wouldn’t have asked for a replacement, because I’m sure she knew it was temporary. But he did make up for it and that’s what makes him awesome. :)
Volume 3, Book 43, Number 630:
Narrated Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):
Regarding the explanation of the following verse:- “If a wife fears cruelty or desertion on her husband’s part.” (4.128) A man may dislike his wife and intend to divorce her, so she says to him, “I give up my rights, so do not divorce me.” The above verse was revealed concerning such a case.
وَإِنِ امْرَأَةٌ خَـفَتْ مِن بَعْلِهَا نُشُوزاً أَوْ إِعْرَاضاً فَلاَ جُنَاْحَ عَلَيْهِمَآ أَن يُصْلِحَا بَيْنَهُمَا صُلْحاً وَالصُّلْحُ خَيْرٌ وَأُحْضِرَتِ الأنفُسُ الشُّحَّ وَإِن تُحْسِنُواْ وَتَتَّقُواْ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيراً
“And if a woman fears cruelty or desertion on her husband’s part, there is no sin on them both if they make terms of peace between themselves; and making peace is better. And human souls are swayed by greed. But if you do good and have Taqwa, verily, Allah is Ever Well-Acquainted with what you do.” [An-Nisaa: 128]
Ibn Katheer comments:
The Ruling Concerning Desertion on the Part of the Husband
Allah states, and thus legislates accordingly, that sometimes, the man inclines away from his wife, sometimes towards her and sometimes he parts with her. In the first case, when the wife fears that her husband is steering away from her or deserting her, she is allowed to forfeit all or part of her rights, such as provisions, clothing, dwelling, and so forth, and the husband is allowed to accept such concessions from her. Hence, there is no harm if she offers such concessions, and if her husband accepts them. This is why Allah said,
﴿فَلاَ جُنَاْحَ عَلَيْهِمَآ أَن يُصْلِحَا بَيْنَهُمَا صُلْحاً﴾
(there is no sin on them both if they make terms of peace between themselves;) He then said,
(and making peace is better) than divorce. Allah’s statement,
﴿وَأُحْضِرَتِ الأنفُسُ الشُّحَّ﴾
(And human souls are swayed by greed.) means, coming to peaceful terms, even when it involves forfeiting some rights, is better than parting. Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “Sawdah feared that the Messenger of Allah might divorce her and she said, `O Messenger of Allah! Do not divorce me; give my day to `A’ishah.’ And he did, and later on Allah sent down,
﴿وَإِنِ امْرَأَةٌ خَـفَتْ مِن بَعْلِهَا نُشُوزاً أَوْ إِعْرَاضاً فَلاَ جُنَاْحَ عَلَيْهِمَآ﴾
(And if a woman fears cruelty or desertion on her husband’s part, there is no sin on them both) Ibn `Abbas said, “Whatever (legal agreement) the spouses mutually agree to is allowed.”. At-Tirmidhi recorded it and said, “Hasan Gharib”. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that `A’ishah said that when Sawdah bint Zam`ah became old, she forfeited her day to `A’ishah, and the Prophet used to spend Sawdah’s night with `A’ishah. There is a similar narration also collected by Al-Bukhari. Al-Bukhari also recorded that `A’ishah commented;
﴿وَإِنِ امْرَأَةٌ خَـفَتْ مِن بَعْلِهَا نُشُوزاً أَوْ إِعْرَاضاً﴾
(And if a woman fears cruelty or desertion on her husband’s part), that it refers to, “A man who is married to an old woman, and he does not desire her and wants to divorce her. So she says, `I forfeit my right on you.’ So this Ayah was revealed.”
Meaning of “Making Peace is Better”
(And making peace is better). `Ali bin Abi Talhah related that Ibn `Abbas said that the Ayah refers to, “When the husband gives his wife the choice between staying with him or leaving him, as this is better than the husband preferring other wives to her.” However, the apparent wording of the Ayah refers to the settlement where the wife forfeits some of the rights she has over her husband, with the husband agreeing to this concession, and that this settlement is better than divorce. For instance, the Prophet kept Sawdah bint Zam`ah as his wife after she offered to forfeit her day for `A’ishah. By keeping her among his wives, his Ummah may follow this kind of settlement. Since settlement and peace are better with Allah than parting, Allah said,
(and making peace is better). Divorce is not preferred with Allah. The meaning of Allah’s statement,
﴿وَإِن تُحْسِنُواْ وَتَتَّقُواْ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيراً﴾
(But if you do good and have Taqwa, verily, Allah is Ever Well-Acquainted with what you do) if you are patient with the wife you dislike and treat her as other wives are treated, then Allah knows what you do and will reward you for it perfectly.