Killer Takes All (Hadith No. 2767)
Volume 4, Book 53, Number 370 :
Narrated by Abu Qatada (radiallaahu `anhu)
We set out in the company of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) on the day (of the battle) of Hunain. When we faced the enemy, the Muslims retreated and I saw a pagan throwing himself over a Muslim. I turned around and came upon him from behind and hit him on the shoulder with the sword. He (i.e. the pagan) came towards me and seized me so violently that I felt as if it were death itself, but death overtook him and he released me. I followed ‘Umar bin Al Khattab (radiallaahu `anhu) and asked (him), “What is wrong with the people (fleeing)?” He replied, “This is the Will of Allah,” After the people returned, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) sat and said, “Anyone who has killed an enemy and has a proof of that, will posses his spoils.” I got up and said, “Who will be a witness for me?” and then sat down. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) again said, “Anyone who has killed an enemy and has proof of that, will possess his spoils.” I (again) got up and said, “Who will be a witness for me?” and sat down. Then the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said the same for the third time. I again got up, and Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “O Abu Qatada! What is your story?” Then I narrated the whole story to him. A man (got up and) said, “O Allah’s Apostle! He is speaking the truth, and the spoils of the killed man are with me. So please compensate him on my behalf.” On that Abu Bakr As-Siddiq (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “No, by Allah, he (i.e. Allah’s Apostle ) will not agree to give you the spoils gained by one of Allah’s Lions who fights on the behalf of Allah and His Apostle.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Abu Bakr has spoken the truth.” So, Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) gave the spoils to me. I sold that armor (i.e. the spoils) and with its price I bought a garden at Bani Salima, and this was my first property which I gained after my conversion to Islam.
- Killer gets the spoils of the killed (not compensation.. actual belongings).
- Killer needs proof to obtain spoils. In Abu Qatada’s (radiallaahu `anhu) case, it was another man’s testimony.
Further reading: www.muslimtents.com/shaufi/b17/b176.htm
Peacemaking (Hadith No. 2354)
Ahadith 2349 – 2353 are repeats. See linked text for related posts.
Volume 3, Book 48, Number 851 :
Narrated by An-Nu’man bin Bashir (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “The example of the person abiding by Allah’s orders and limits (or the one who abides by the limits and regulations prescribed by Allah) in comparison to the one who do wrong and violate Allah’s limits and orders is like the example of people drawing lots for seats in a boat. Some of them got seats in the upper part while the others in the lower part ; those in the, lower part have to pass by those in the upper one to get water, and that troubled the latter. One of them (i.e. the people in the lower part) took an axe and started making a hole in the bottom of the boat. The people of the upper part came and asked him, (saying), ‘What is wrong with you?’ He replied, “You have been troubled much by my (coming up to you), and I have to get water.’ Now if they prevent him from doing that they will save him and themselves, but if they leave him (to do what he wants), they will destroy him and themselves.”
Volume 3, Book 48, Number 852 :
Narrated by Um Al-Ala
That when the Ansar drew lots as to which of the emigrants should dwell with which of the Ansar, the name of Uthman bin Mazun (radiallaahu `anhu) came out (to be in their lot). Um Al-Ala further said, “Uthman stayed with us, and we nursed him when he got sick, but he died. We shrouded him in his clothes, and Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) came to our house and I said, (addressing the dead ‘Uthman), ‘O Abu As-Sa’ib! May Allah be merciful to you. I testify that Allah has blessed you.’ The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said to me, “How do you know that Allah has blessed him?” I replied, ‘I do not know O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! May my parents be sacrificed for you.’ Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, ‘As regards Uthman, by Allah he has died and I really wish him every good, yet, by Allah, although I am Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), I do not know what will be done to him.’ Um Al-Ala added, ‘By Allah I shall never attest the piety of anybody after him. And what Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said made me sad.” Um Al-Ala further said, “Once I slept and saw in a dream, a flowing stream for Uthman. So I went to Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and told him about it, he said, ‘That is (the symbol of) his deeds.”
Volume 3, Book 48, Number 853 :
Narrated by Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa)
Whenever Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) intended to go on a journey, he used to draw lots among his wives and would take with him the one on whom the lot fell. He also used to fix for everyone of his wives a day and a night, but Sauda bint Zam’a (radiallaahu `anhaa) gave her day and night to ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa), the wife of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) intending thereby to please Allah’s Apostle. [See no. 766 in this post.]
Volume 3, Book 48, Number 854 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “If the people knew what is the reward of making the call (for the prayer) and (of being in) the first row (in the prayer), and if they found no other way to get this privilege except by casting lots, they would certainly cast lots for it. If they knew the reward of the noon prayer, they would race for it, and if they knew the reward of the morning (i.e. Fajr) and Isha prayers, they would present themselves for the prayer even if they had to crawl to reach there.
Book of Witnesses [Kitaab-ush-Shahaadaat] ends here.
Book of Peacemaking [Kitaab-us-Sulh] starts today..
Volume 3, Book 49, Number 855 :
Narrated by Sahl bin Sad (radiallaahu `anhu)
There was a dispute amongst the people of the tribe of Bani ‘Amr bin ‘Auf. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) went to them along with some of his companions in order to make peace between them. The time for the prayer became due but the Prophet did not turn up; Bilal (radiallaahu `anhu) pronounced the Adhan (i.e. call) for the prayer but the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) did not turn up, so Bilal (radiallaahu `anhu) went to Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) and said, “The time for the prayer is due and the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) is detained, would you lead the people in the prayer?” Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) replied, “Yes, if you wish.” So, Bilal (radiallaahu `anhu) pronounced the Iqama of the prayer and Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) went ahead (to lead the prayer), but the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) came walking among the rows till he joined the first row. The people started clapping and they clapped too much, and Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) used not to look hither and thither in the prayer, but he turned round and saw the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) standing behind him. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) beckoned him with his hand to keep on praying where he was. Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) raised his hand and praised Allah and then retreated till he came in the (first) row, and the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) went ahead and lead the people in the prayer. When the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) finished the prayer, he turned towards the people and said, “O people! When something happens to you during the prayer, you start clapping. Really, clapping is (permissible) for women only. If something happens to one of you in his prayer, he should say: ‘Subhan Allah’, (Glorified be Allah), for whoever hears him (saying so) will direct his attention towards him. O Abu Bakr! What prevented you from leading the people in the prayer when I beckoned to you (to continue)?” Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) replied, “It did not befit the son of Abu Quhafa to lead the prayer in front of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam).
Volume 3, Book 49, Number 856 :
Narrated by Anas (radiallaahu `anhu)
It was said to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) “Would that you see Abdullah bin Ubai.” So, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) went to him, riding a donkey, and the Muslims accompanied him, walking on salty barren land. When the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) reached ‘Abdullah bin Ubai, the latter said, “Keep away from me! By Allah, the bad smell of your donkey has harmed me.” On that an Ansari man said (to ‘Abdullah), “By Allah! The smell of the donkey of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) is better than your smell.” On that a man from ‘Abdullah’s tribe got angry for ‘Abdullah’s sake, and the two men abused each other which caused the friends of the two men to get angry, and the two groups started fighting with sticks, shoes and hands. We were informed that the following Divine Verse was revealed (in this concern):– “And if two groups of Believers fall to fighting then, make peace between them.” (49.9)
There is an apparent problem with this hadith that the scholars have reconciled in different ways.
Problem: this ayah was not revealed after this incident because it took place in the very beginning in Madinah, and Surah al-Hujuraat was revealed in the later stages. Furthermore, the people of Abdullah ibn Ubayy were not Muslims yet and that is why the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) went to them – to give da’wah, and the ayah talks about “two Muslim groups”.
- Anas (radiallaahu `anhu) gives this ayah as evidence instead of stating the reason for its revelation. Read its tafsir for details.
- There were some Muslims among Ibn Ubayy’s people and Allah was referring to them in this ayah, because his hypocrisy wasn’t exposed yet.
- Anas (radiallaahu `anhu) uses the word “ballaghanaa” (بلغنا) while narrating this hadith which means “it reached us”.. so it’s unclear whom it came from and how sound the report was.
Whichever one it is, Allah knows best. But it’s definitely intriguing!
P.S. what a disrespectful way to talk to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam): “Keep away from me! By Allah, the bad smell of your donkey has harmed me.” -_-
Qur’an, Torah and Gospel (Hadith No. 2348)
Volume 3, Book 48, Number 850 :
Narrated by Ubaidullah bin Abdullah bin Utba
Ibn Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “O Muslims? How do you ask the people of the Scriptures, though your Book (i.e. the Quran) which was revealed to His Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) is the most recent information from Allah and you recite it, the Book that has not been distorted? Allah has revealed to you that the people of the scriptures have changed with their own hands what was revealed to them and they have said (as regards their changed Scriptures): This is from Allah, in order to get some worldly benefit thereby.” Ibn Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu) added: “Isn’t the knowledge revealed to you sufficient to prevent you from asking them? By Allah I have never seen any one of them asking (Muslims) about what has been revealed to you.”
Do we believe in the “Holy Books” present today?
We Muslims do not believe that there is any contradiction between the Holy Qur’an and the original Torah and Gospel, because we believe that they are all divinely revealed books that were sent down from Allah, may He be glorified. Thus they came from the same source, and as that is the case there cannot be any contradiction or conflict between them, as Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Do they not then consider the Quran carefully? Had it been from other than Allah, they would surely have found therein much contradictions”
Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, describes the Holy Qur’an as “confirming” the Books that came before it, and that which confirms something cannot contradict or conflict with it. Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):
“It is He Who has sent down the Book (the Quran) to you (Muhammad SAW) with truth, confirming what came before it. And he sent down the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel).
Aforetime, as a guidance to mankind, And He sent down the criterion (of judgement between right and wrong (this Quran)).”
[Aal ‘Imraan 3:3-4]
“And We have sent down to you (O Muhammad SAW) the Book (this Quran) in truth, confirming the Scripture that came before it and Mohayminan (trustworthy in highness and a witness) over it (old Scriptures)”
As for what we see nowadays of contradictions in the copies of the Torah and Gospel that are extant today, the reason for that is clear and obvious. It is because these two Books have fallen prey to distortion and alteration, with things being taken away, added and changed. That is in addition to the fact that the sources and manuscripts that have come down to us today cannot be trusted. This is what explains any differences that researchers or students find between these two Books and the Holy Qur’an which has been transmitted to us in a mutawaatir fashion (i.e., narrated by so many from so many that it is inconceivable that they could all have agreed upon a lie), as is attested by both believers and nonbelievers.
Can we read them?
Reading these distorted books is not permissible, except for one who has enough Islamic knowledge to be able to distinguish between truth and falsehood in them, and who reads them with the aim of refuting their followers and convincing them that what is in these books is falsehood.
Hence the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) got angry when he saw a book in the hand of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) that he had taken from some of the People of the Book. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Are you in doubt of it, O son of al-Khattab? By the One in Whose hand is my soul, I have brought to you that which is white and pure, and by the One in Whose hand is my soul, if Musa ((peace be upon him) were alive, he could do nothing but follow me.” [Imam Ahmad].
Allah has told us that these people are plotting and that they will do all that they can to take the Muslims away from their religion. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And they will never cease fighting you until they turn you back from your religion (Islamic Monotheism) if they can.” [2:217]
Shaykh al-S’adi (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
Allah tells us that they will never stop fighting the believers, and that their aim is not to steal their wealth or kill them; rather their aim is to turn them back from their religion so that they will become disbelievers after having believed, and so that they will be doomed to Hell. So they are doing all that they can to achieve this and striving as hard as they can, but Allah will not allow except that His Light should be perfected even though the Kafirun (disbelievers) hate (it) [9:32].
This description is general and applies to all the disbelievers. They will not cease to fight others until they turn them back from their religion, especially the People of the Book, the Jews and Christians, who set up organizations and send missionaries and doctors, and build schools in order to attract people to their religion and to introduce to them whatever they can of specious arguments which will make them doubt their religion.
But hope comes from Allah Who has blessed the believers with Islam and has chosen for them His true religion, and has perfected His religion for them, and has completed His blessings upon them, and has thwarted everyone who wants to extinguish His light, caused their plans to fail, supported His religion and made His word supreme.
This verse speaks the truth about these disbelievers as it speaks the truth about those who came before them (interpretation of the meaning): “Verily, those who disbelieve spend their wealth to hinder (men) from the path of Allah, and so will they continue to spend it; but in the end it will become an anguish for them. Then they will be overcome. And those who disbelieve will be gathered unto Hell.” [8:36] End quote. Tafsir al-S’adi.
Adult Before Eighteen (Hadith No. 2330)
Volume 3, Book 48, Number 832 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) called me to present myself in front of him on the eve of the battle of Uhud, while I was fourteen years of age at that time, and he did not allow me to take part in that battle, but he called me in front of him on the eve of the battle of the Trench when I was fifteen years old, and he allowed me (to join the battle).” Nafi’ said, “I went to ‘Umar bin ‘Abdul Aziz who was Caliph at that time and related the above narration to him, He said, “This age (fifteen) is the limit between childhood and manhood,” and wrote to his governors to give salaries to those who reached the age of fifteen.
The common conception of a minor being under the age 18 is not in accordance with Islamic practice. Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) let Ibn Umar and some other young companions participate in the Battle of Trench at the age of 15.
With the onset of puberty, the individual becomes subject to shar‘i rulings that apply to him, so he should not shake hands with women or look at them, and he should not be alone with a woman, because he has now become accountable and the things that are prohibited for adult men are also prohibited for him, because he is one of them. It is not permissible to be careless about this matter, and it is essential to take it seriously.
If a fourteen-year-old boy has not yet reached puberty, he is very close to it, and such a person should not be allowed to see women’s ‘awrahs. Women have to understand that and observe hijab in the presence of one who is very close to puberty.
Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):
“and not to show off their adornment except only that which is apparent (like palms of hands or one eye or both eyes for necessity to see the way, or outer dress like veil, gloves, head-cover, apron, etc.), and to draw their veils all over Juyubihinna (i.e. their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms, etc.) and not to reveal their adornment except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands fathers, their sons, their husbands sons, their brothers or their brothers sons, or their sisters sons, or their (Muslim) women (i.e. their sisters in Islam), or the (female) slaves whom their right hands possess, or old male servants who lack vigour, or small children who have no sense of the shame of sex”
Ibn Katheer (may Allah have mercy on him) said: “or small children who have no sense of the shame of sex” that is, because they are so young, they do not understand anything about women and their ‘awrahs, such as their soft speech or alluring ways of walking and moving. If the child is small and does not understand such things, then there is nothing wrong with him entering upon women. But if he is adolescent or close to adolescence, such that he understands these things and can distinguish between who is unattractive and who is beautiful, then he should not be allowed to enter upon women.
End quote from Tafseer Ibn Katheer (6/45-46)
It was said to Imam Ahmad (may Allah have mercy on him): When should a woman cover her head in front of a boy? He said: When he reaches the age of ten years.
End quote from al-Mughni (7/100)
With regard to reaching the age of fifteen years, what is meant is that the boy has completed fourteen years and has entered his fifteenth year. This is often applicable to one who says that he is fourteen years old; he has completed fourteen years. Therefore this sign of puberty is applicable in his case.
Moreover, the years that count in this matter are Hijri years, not Gregorian. This means that his age will be less than if it is counted by Gregorian years.
Taken from IslamQA