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The Muslim Gentleman (Ahadith 2715 – 2716)

Bismillah.

Hadith no. 2714 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 317 :
Narrated by Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu)
When the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) returned (from Jihad), he would say Takbir thrice and add, “We are returning, if Allah wishes, with repentance and worshipping and praising (our Lord) and prostrating ourselves before our Lord. Allah fulfilled His Promise and helped His Slave, and He Alone defeated the (infidel) clans.”

Today’s Ahadith:

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 318 :
Narrated by Anas bin Malik (radiallaahu `anhu)
We were in the company of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) while returning from ‘Usfan, and Allah’s Apostle was riding his she-camel keeping Safiya bint Huyay (radiallaahu `anhaa) riding behind him. His she-camel slipped and both of them fell down. Abu Talha (radiallaahu `anhu) jumped from his camel and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! May Allah sacrifice me for you.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Take care of the lady.” So, Abu Talha covered his face with a garment and went to Safiya (radiallaahu `anhaa) and covered her with it, and then he set right the condition of their she-camel so that both of them rode, and we were encircling Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) like a cover. When we approached Medina, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “We are returning with repentance and worshipping and praising our Lord.” He kept on saying this till he entered Medina.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 319 :
Narrated by Anas bin Malik (radiallaahu `anhu)
That he and Abu Talha (radiallaahu `anhu) came in the company of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and Safiya (radiallaahu `anhaa) was accompanying the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), who let her ride behind him on his she-camel. During the journey, the she-camel slipped and both the Prophet and (his) wife fell down. Abu Talha (the sub-narrator thinks that Anas said that Abu Talha jumped from his camel quickly) said, “O Allah’s Apostle! May Allah sacrifice me for your sake! Did you get hurt?” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) replied,”No, but take care of the lady.” Abu Talha (radiallaahu `anhu) covered his face with his garment and proceeded towards her and covered her with his garment, and she got up. He then set right the condition of their she-camel and both of them (i.e. the Prophet and his wife) rode and proceeded till they approached Medina. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “We are returning with repentance and worshipping and praising our Lord.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) kept on saying this statement till he entered Medina.

“Take care of the lady” =  How to be a gentleman 101.

Abu Aaliyah, blogger at The Humble “I”, talks about being a true gentleman under Islamic guidelines:

It is often claimed that in Victorian or Edwardian England, respectability essentially meant maintaining a reputable facade while encouraging all sorts of hypocrisies. How much or how little can one generalise in such a matter is up for debate. Yet at its core, the widely cherished notion that there was a respectable way to conduct oneself; that there was a decent and honourable way of being a true “gentleman” (as opposed to a hypocritical one) – well that’s a very Islamic idea. A gentleman was someone who was restrained, courteous, considerate, well mannered, had public dignity, and was aware of boundaries; particularly when in mixed company.

The Islamic concept of futuwwah, “spiritual chivalry,” is where we find the ideals of the true Muslim gentleman best expressed. Futuwwah embodies the virtues of dignity and respectability (haybah), refined and noble conduct (adab), and preferring others to oneself (ithar), along with courage (shaja‘ah), magnanimity (sakha’ah) and striving to destroy the idols of one’s ego (mujahadat al-nafs).

Society no longer speaks of a true gentleman. That’s of a bygone era – of Edwardian England; an Englishness long dead and buried. As a nation we need to review where this has led us: if it’s been, on balance, for our betterment? Furthermore, as Muslims themselves start to relax these principles, can we see in where it has led others, where we too might be heading?

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An excerpt from an article written by Imam Khalid Latif on the same topic:

In the Qur’an, the Prophet Abraham, peace be upon him, is referred to in Arabic as fata, a young, noble man who knows how to handle his responsibilities. His sense of integrity and commitment are remarkable.

From this word fata is derived the Arabic word, futuwwa, which essentially translates as chivalry. Being gentle, loyal, modest, honest, compassionate, humble, trustworthy and selfless is having futuwwa. In the medieval period of Islam, orders were established around this principle of futuwwa that emphasized members uphold these traits and seek to serve society, putting their needs after the needs of those around them. They would teach young men how to honor their responsibilities while today we are forced to figure it out on our own. Chivalry is in our tradition. We just have to embrace it again and empower individuals to be those role models that our communities desperately need.

[Read more: Are You a ‘Muslim’ Gentleman?]

So chivalry is not just how the Western culture sees it; holding the door open, pulling out the chair, paying for dinner/date etc. This is all just one aspect of it. The true concept of being a gentleman has much more to it than appearances and treatment of women (not the least important by any means), it has to do with maturity, modesty, dignity, compassion, honesty etc.

An interesting blog I came across that gives equal importance to self-grooming for the “modern Muslim gentleman” and includes tips and how-to’s, check out “thegentlemuslimman“.

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Killing Women in Battle: Exception to the Rule (Ahadith 2652 – 2654)

Bismillah.

Hadith no. 2651 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 255 :
Narrated by Abu Burda’s father
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Three persons will get their reward twice. (One is) a person who has a slave girl and he educates her properly and teaches her good manners properly (without violence) and then manumits and marries her. Such a person will get a double reward. (Another is) a believer from the people of the scriptures who has been a true believer and then he believes in the Prophet (Muhammad). Such a person will get a double reward. (The third is) a slave who observes Allah’s Rights and Obligations and is sincere to his master.”

Today’s Ahadith:

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 256 :
Narrated by As-Sab bin Jaththama (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) passed by me at a place called Al-Abwa or Waddan, and was asked whether it was permissible to attack the pagan warriors at night with the probability of exposing their women and children to danger. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) replied, “They (i.e. women and children) are from them (i.e. pagans).” I also heard the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) saying, “The institution of Hima is invalid except for Allah and His Apostle.”

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 257 :
Narrated by ‘Abdullah (radiallaahu `anhu)
During some of the Ghazawat of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) a woman was found killed. Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) disapproved the killing of women and children.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 258 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
During some of the Ghazawat of Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) a woman was found killed, so Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) forbade the killing of women and children.

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Number 256 and the two narrations below it seem to be contradicting each other, but that’s not the case. The latter two describe the rule, and Number 256 is the exception.

Those who are not generally engaged in fighting – like women, children, the elderly, the handicapped, and others who do not participate in the fighting – are not to be killed. The only exception to this is where such people participate directly in the fighting or are so intermixed with the fighters that it is impossible to separate them from those who are fighting.

The hadîth in question actually shows us that the general rule is not to kill non-combatants, even when they are present on the battlefield. The only exception is when the non-combatants are so mixed in with the fighters that it is impossible to fight against the combatants without the possibility of some non-combatants inadvertently being killed. This is only out of dire necessity.

Ibn Hajar writes in his commentary on this hadîth in Fath al-Bârî (6/146):

His statement “They are of them” means that they are construed as such under those circumstances. It does not mean that it is permissible to deliberately target them.

It is a matter of agreement among scholars that a person’s unbelief is not reason for that person to be killed. There is considerable evidence for this. Aside from the Prophet’s prohibition of killing non-combatants, we have where Allah says: “Let there be no compulsion in religion.” [Sûrah al-Baqarah: 256]

Role of Women in Battles (Ahadith 2525 – 2529)

Bismillah.

Ahadith 2520 – 2524 (below) are repeats. See linked text for related posts.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 125 :
Narrated by ‘Amr bin Al-Harith (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) did not leave anything behind him after his death except a white mule, his arms and a piece of land which he left to be given in charity.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 126 :
Narrated by Al-Bara
That a man asked him. “O Abu ‘Umara! Did you flee on the day (of the battle) of Hunain?” He replied, “No, by Allah, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) did not flee but the hasty people fled and the people of the Tribe of Hawazin attacked them with arrows, while the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was riding his white mule and Abu Sufyan bin Al-Harith was holding its reins, and the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was saying, ‘I am the Prophet in truth, I am the son of ‘Abdul Muttalib.’ “

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 127 :
Narrated by ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa)
The mother of the faithful believers, I requested the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) permit me to participate in Jihad, but he said, “Your Jihad is the performance of Hajj.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 128 :
Narrated by ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa)
The mother of the faithful believers: The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) was asked by his wives about the Jihad and he replied, “The best Jihad (for you) is (the performance of) Hajj.”

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 129 :
Narrated by Anas (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) went to the daughter of Milhan and reclined there (and slept) and then (woke up) smiling. She asked, “O Allah’s Apostle! What makes you smile?” He replied, (I dreamt that) some people amongst my followers were sailing on the green sea in Allah’s Cause, resembling kings on thrones.” She said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Invoke Allah to make me one of them.” He said, “O Allah! Let her be one of them.” Then he (slept again and woke up and) smiled. She asked him the same question and he gave the same reply. She said, “Invoke Allah to make me one of them.” He replied, ”You will be amongst the first group of them; you will not be amongst the last.” Later on she married ‘Ubada bin As-Samit (radiallaahu `anhu) and then she sailed on the sea with bint Qaraza, Mu’awiya’s wife (for Jihad). On her return, she mounted her riding animal, which threw her down breaking her neck, and she died on falling down.

Today’s Ahadith:

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 130 :
Narrated by ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa)
Whenever the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) intended to proceed on a journey, he used to draw lots amongst his wives and would take the one upon whom the lot fell. Once, before setting out for Jihad, he drew lots amongst us and the lot came to me; so I went with the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam); and that happened after the revelation of the Verse Hijab (i.e. veiling).

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 131 :
Narrated by Anas (radiallaahu `anhu)
On the day (of the battle) of Uhad when (some) people retreated and left the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), I saw ‘Aisha bint Abu Bakr and Um Sulaim (radiallaahu `anhum), with their robes tucked up so that the bangles around their ankles were visible hurrying with their water skins (in another narration it is said, “carrying the water skins on their backs”). Then they would pour the water in the mouths of the people, and return to fill the water skins again and came back again to pour water in the mouths of the people.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 132 :
Narrated by Tha’laba bin Abi Malik
‘Umar bin Al-Khattab (radiallaahu `anhu) distributed some garments amongst the women of Medina. One good garment remained, and one of those present with him said, “O chief of the believers! Give this garment to your wife, the (grand) daughter of Allah’s Apostle.” They meant Um Kulthum, the daughter of ‘Ali. ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, Um Salit has more right (to have it).” Um Salit was amongst those Ansari women who had given the pledge of allegiance to Allah’s Apostle.’ ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “She (i.e. Um Salit) used to carry the water skins for us on the day of Uhud.”

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 133 :
Narrated by Ar-Rubayyi ‘bint Mu’auwidh (radiallaahu `anhaa)
We were in the company of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) providing the wounded with water and treating them and bringing the killed to Medina (from the battle field).

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 134 :
Narrated by Ar-Rabi’bint Mu’auwidh (radiallaahu `anhaa)
We used to take part in holy battles with the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) by providing the people with water and serving them and bringing the killed and the wounded back to Medina.

READY

Jihad is not obligatory for women. Ibn Qudaamah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

In order for jihad to be obligatory there are seven conditions: being Muslim, being an adult, being of sound mind, being free, being male, being physically sound and being able to afford it financially. With regard to being Muslim, adult and of sound mind, these are essential conditions for all Islamic duties, because a kaafir is not to be trusted in jihad, an insane person cannot go for jihad and a child is physically weak. Ibn ‘Umar said: “I presented myself to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) on the day of Uhud when I was fourteen years old, and he did not let me join the fighting.” Agreed upon. … With regard to being male, this is stipulated because of the report narrated from ‘Aa’ishah who said: “O Messenger of Allaah, do women have to engage in jihad? He said: “Jihad in which there is no fighting: Hajj and ‘Umrah.” And because women are not able to fight because they are (physically) weak.

From al-Mughni, 9/163.

The hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) was narrated by Ahmad (25361) and Ibn Maajah (2901); classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah.

Can a woman go out to help the mujaahideen and treat the wounded?

Al-Sarkhasi said in Sharh al-Siyar al-Kabeer (1/184): Chapter on women fighting alongside men and being present in war: He said: we do not like women to fight alongside men in war because a woman does not have the right physical make-up for fighting, as the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) indicated when he said: “This one was not a fighter” (said when he saw the body of a woman slain on the battlefield). And when a woman fights, the ‘awrah of the Muslims may become exposed and the mushrikeen will rejoice at that, and that may be a cause of the mushrikeen increasing their hopes of defeating the Muslims, and they may think that the Muslims are weak because they had to bring the women to fight, so they will say, ‘They need the help of women to fight us.” So this should be avoided. For this reason it is not recommended for women to participate directly in the fighting. But if the Muslims have no choice and are forced to do that, because repelling the kuffaar when necessary by whatever means the Muslims have at their disposal, is permissible, rather it is obligatory. The story of Hunayn is quoted as evidence for that.

At the end of this story it says: Umm Sulaym bint Milhaan, who was fighting that day with a cloth tied around her stomach, said: “O Messenger of Allaah, what do you think about these people who ran away from you and let you down? You should not forgive them if Allaah gives you power over them.” He (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “O Umm Sulaym, the forgiveness of Allaah is immense.” She repeated that three times, and each time the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The mercy of Allaah is immense.” In al-Maghaazi it is narrated that she said: “O Messenger of Allaah, should we not kill these who ran away (from the battlefield) as we killed the mushrikeen?” He (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:  “The forgiveness of Allaah is immense.” What greater need can there be for women to fight than this incident when the men fled and abandoned the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). This clearly shows that there is nothing wrong with women fighting when that is essential, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not prevent this woman from fighting on that occasion. But it is not narrated that he gave the women permission to fight on other occasions. There is nothing wrong with old women being present at times of war to tend the wounded, bring water and cook food for the soldiers if they need that, because of the hadeeth of ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Qarat al-Azdi who said: The womenfolk of Khaalid ibn al-Waleed and the womenfolk of the Sahaabah had their sleeves rolled up, bringing water to the mujaahideen and reciting encouraging poetry, when he was fighting the Byzantines. What is meant here is old women, because young women are not allowed to go out for fear of fitnah, and old women can take care of the needs in such situations. And it was narrated that Umm Mutaa’, who was present at Khaybar with the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), said: I saw Aslam (one of the Arab tribes) when they complained to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) about the difficulties they were facing, so he recommended that they engage in jihad and they responded. I saw that Aslam were the first ones to reach the fortress and the sun did not set on that day until Allaah had enabled us to conquer it.

This clearly shows that she went out with the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and he did not forbid her to do so. From this we know that there is nothing wrong with an old woman going out to help the mujaahideen by doing tasks that are appropriate for them. And Allaah is the Source of strength. End quote.

It says in Khishshaaf al-Qinaa’ (3/26): Women are not allowed (to engage in jihad) because they are a source of temptation, as well as not being qualified to fight, because of their natural tendency to be weak and cowardly, and because there is no guarantee that the enemy will not capture them and regard it as permissible to do to them that which Allaah has forbidden. Some of the scholars said: except the wife of the ruler or commander, who may be present to attend to his needs, because of the actions of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), or an old women in cases of need only, such as giving water to the troops and treating the wounded, because al-Rubayyi’ bint Mu’awwidh said: “We used to go out to fight with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), bringing water and serving them, bringing back the wounded and the slain to Madeenah.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari. And a similar report was narrated from Anas by Muslim. That is because men may be distracted from these tasks by fighting, so this is a help to the Muslims and supporting them in their fight.

All of this has to do with jihad in cases where the enemy has not invaded the Muslim land, in which case jihad becomes obligatory on every able-bodied person, man or woman, and a woman may then go out without her husband’s permission. Al-Kaasaani al-Hanafi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “But at times of general mobilization, such as when the enemy is seeking to invade a Muslim land, then it becomes an individual obligation (fard ‘ayn) on every single Muslim who is able to fight, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“March forth, whether you are light (being healthy, young and wealthy) or heavy (being ill, old and poor)”

[al-Tawbah 9:41]

It was said that this was revealed concerning general mobilization.

And Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“It was not becoming of the people of Al-Madinah and the bedouins of the neighbourhood to remain behind Allaah’s Messenger (Muhammad r when fighting in Allaah’s Cause) and (it was not becoming of them) to prefer their own lives to his life”

[al-Tawbah 9:120]

From Badaa’i’ al-Sanaa’i’, 7/98

It says something similar in al-Sharh al-Sagheer, one of the Maaliki books (2/274): that if the enemy attacks a Muslim land, then jihad becomes an individual obligation for every man and woman.

In conclusion:

Jihad is not obligatory for women in principle, except in cases of necessity, such as if the kuffaar attack a Muslim land, in which case jihad becomes obligatory for women, according to their abilities. If a woman is not able to fight then she is not obliged to do so, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Allaah burdens not a person beyond his scope”

[al-Baqarah 2:286]

And Allaah knows best.

Taken from IslamQA

Reward for Martyrdom (Ahadith 2441 – 2446)

Bismillah.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 48 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Whoever believes in Allah and His Apostle, offer prayer perfectly and fasts the month of Ramadan, will rightfully be granted Paradise by Allah, no matter whether he fights in Allah’s Cause or remains in the land where he is born.” The people said, “O Allah’s Apostle ! Shall we acquaint the people with the is good news?” He said, “Paradise has one-hundred grades which Allah has reserved for the Mujahidin who fight in His Cause, and the distance between each of two grades is like the distance between the Heaven and the Earth. So, when you ask Allah (for something), ask for Al-firdaus which is the best and highest part of Paradise.” (i.e. The sub-narrator added, “I think the Prophet also said, ‘Above it (i.e. Al-Firdaus) is the Throne of Beneficent (i.e. Allah), and from it originate the rivers of Paradise.”)

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 49 :
Narrated by Samura (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Last night two men came to me (in a dream) and made me ascend a tree and then admitted me into a better and superior house, better of which I have never seen. One of them said, ‘This house is the house of martyrs.”

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 50 :
Narrated by Anas bin Malik (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “A single endeavor (of fighting) in Allah’s Cause in the forenoon or in the afternoon is better than the world and whatever is in it.”

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 51 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “A place in Paradise as small as a bow is better than all that on which the sun rises and sets (i.e. all the world).” He also said, “A single endeavor in Allah’s Cause in the afternoon or in the forenoon is better than all that on which the sun rises and sets.”

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 52 :
Narrated by Sahl bin Sad (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “A single endeavor in Allah’s Cause in the afternoon and in the forenoon is better than the world and whatever is in it.”

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 53 :
Narrated by Anas bin Malik (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Nobody who dies and finds good from Allah (in the Hereafter) would wish to come back to this world even if he were given the whole world and whatever is in it, except the martyr who, on seeing the superiority of martyrdom, would like to come back to the world and get killed again (in Allah’s Cause).” Narrated Anas: The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “A single endeavor (of fighting) in Allah’s Cause in the afternoon or in the forenoon is better than all the world and whatever is in it. A place in Paradise as small as the bow or lash of one of you is better than all the world and whatever is in it. And if a houri from Paradise appeared to the people of the earth, she would fill the space between Heaven and the Earth with light and pleasant scent and her head cover is better than the world and whatever is in it.”

Pleasing the most Merciful and entering Paradise are the ultimate aim that believing men and women should wish for. If a person departs this world having won the pleasure of Allaah, then he will have the glad tidings of all that is good after that. When he enters Paradise he will have delights and pleasures such as no eye has seen, no ear has heard and it has not entered the mind of any man. He will have all that he wishes for in the best ways. Everything that he asks for will be granted, and everything that he longs for he will get. He will never find anything to upset or disturb him, because he is in the care of the Most Merciful, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Therein you shall have (all) that your inner‑selves desire, and therein you shall have (all) for which you ask.

32. An entertainment from (Allaah), the Oft‑Forgiving, Most Merciful”

[Fussilat 41:31-32]

One of the best things that people long for in the Hereafter is, for men, the women of Paradise, namely al-hoor al-‘iyn, and for women there is an equivalent delight. By His great wisdom, Allaah has not mentioned what the women will have as the equivalent of al-hoor al-‘iyn for men, and that is due to modesty and shyness. How can He encourage them to seek Paradise by mentioning something that they are too shy and modest to mention or speak about themselves? So He has simply hinted at it, as in the verse (interpretation of the meaning):

“Therein you shall have (all) that your inner‑selves desire

[Fussilat 41:31-32]

Description of Hoor:

The description of al-hoor al-‘iyn is mentioned in more than one place in the Book of Allaah, such as the following:

1 – Allaah says, describing the reward of the people of Paradise (interpretation of the meaning):

“And (there will be) Hoor (fair females) with wide lovely eyes (as wives for Al-Muttaqoon – the pious).

23. Like unto preserved pearls”

[al-Waaqi’ah 56:22, 23] 

al-Sa’di (may Allaah have mercy on him)said:

And (there will be) Hoor (fair females) with wide lovely eyes”. Al-Hawra’ is a woman in whose eyes are lined with kohl, beautiful and bright. Al-‘iyn refers to beautiful and huge eyes. The beauty of eyes in the female is one of the greatest signs of beauty.

Like unto preserved pearls” means, as if they are pure, white, shining pearls, which are covered and protected from people’s eyes, the wind and the sun. Their colour is one of the most beautiful of colours and they have no fault or blemish of any kind. This is how al-hoor al-‘iyn are: they have no faults of blemishes of any kind, rather they are beautiful in all ways.

Every time you gaze upon her, you see nothing but that which gladdens the heart. End quote.

Tafseer al-Sa’di, p. 991

2 – Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“(In beauty) they are like rubies and coral”

[al-Rahmaan 55:58]

al-Tabari (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

Ibn Zayd said concerning the words “they are like rubies and coral” it is as if they are rubies in their purity and like coral in their whiteness. So their purity is that of rubies and their whiteness is that of pearls. End quote.

Tafseer al-Tabari, 27/152

3 – Allaah says describing the women of Paradise, in Soorat al-Waaqi’ah (interpretation of the meaning):

“Verily, We have created them (maidens) of special creation.

36. And made them virgins.

37. Loving (their husbands only), (and) of equal age”

[al-Waaqi’ah 56:35-37]

Ibn Katheer (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

With regard to the word “loving (‘uruban)”, Sa’eed ibn Jubayr said, quoting from Ibn ‘Abbaas that it means: they are loving towards their husbands. It was narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas that al-‘urub are those who love their husbands and their husbands love them.

With regard to the word “of equal age (atraaban)”, al-Dahhaak said, quoting from Ibn ‘Abbaas, that it means: of the same age, thirty-three years.

Al-Saddi said: “atraaban” means that they are equal in temperament and they do not resent or envy one another, i.e., they are not like hostile co-wives. End quote.

Tafseer Ibn Katheer, 4/294

Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar said:

It was narrated that Mujaahid said concerning the verse “Loving (their husbands only), (and) of equal age”: i.e., those who are dear to their husbands.

Fath al-Baari, 8/626

4 – Allaah says, describing them (interpretation of the meaning):

“Therein (Gardens) will be Khairaatun‑Hisaan [fair (wives) good and beautiful]”

[al-Rahmaan 55:70]

Ibn al-Qayyim said:

They are described as being fair and beautiful. The word khayraat (fair and good) is derived from the word khayyarah, which refers to the woman who combines all good qualities, both outward and inward, and whose physical appearance and attitude are perfect. So they are good in attitude and fair of face.

Rawdat al-Muhibbeen, p. 243.

5 – Allaah describes them as pure, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“and they shall have therein Azwaajun Mutahharatun (purified mates or wives), and they will abide therein forever”

[al-Baqarah 2:25]

Ibn al-Qayyim said:

Allaah describes them as pure: “and they shall have therein Azwaajun Mutahharatun (purified mates or wives)”, pure from menses, urine and the like (stools) and all off-putting features that may exist in the women of this world. And their hearts are pure from envy, annoyance of their husbands, meanness or wishing for husbands other than them.

Rawdat al-Muhibbeen, p. 243, 244

6 – Allaah describes them as refraining from looking at anyone except their husbands (interpretation of the meaning):

“Wherein both will be Qaasiraat‑ut‑Tarf [chaste females (wives) restraining their glances, desiring none except their husbands]”

[al-Rahmaan 55:56] 

“Hoor (beautiful, fair females) guarded in pavilions”

[al-Rahmaan 55:72]

Ibn al-Qayyim said:

Allaah describes them as being “guarded in pavilions”, i.e., they are prevented from making a display of themselves before anyone except their husbands. They are guarded for their husbands and they do not go out of their houses, and they restrain themselves for them and do not desire anyone else. And Allaah describes them as “Qaasiraat‑ut‑Tarf [chaste females (wives) restraining their glances”. This description is more complete than the first, for one of them restrains her gaze and focuses her love upon her husband, she is content with him and does not look beyond him at anyone else.

Rawdat al-Muhibbeen, p. 244

This is a brief look at what has been said about them in the Qur’aan. In the Sunnah there are descriptions of their beauty and fairness which defy the imagination, such as the following:

1 – It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The first group will enter Paradise looking like the moon on the night when it is full, and those who follow them will be like the brightest shining star in the sky. Their hearts will be as one, and there will be no hatred or jealousy among them. Each man will have two wives from among al-hoor al-‘iyn, the marrow of whose calves can be seen from beneath the bone and flesh.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, no. 3014; Muslim, 2843.

Ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

The stunning beauty of the hoori is such that the marrow of her calves can be seen from beneath her clothes, and a man will be able to see his face in the liver of one of them, like a mirror because of the fineness of her skin and the purity of her colour.

Fath al-Baari, 8/570

2 – It was narrated that Anas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “If a woman from among the people of Paradise were to look out over the earth, she would illuminate everything that is in between them, and would fill everything that is in between them with fragrance. And the scarf on her head is better than this world and everything in it.”

If she were to show her face, it would shine between heaven and earth; how beautiful is the light of her face and how beautiful the scent that is filling the space between heaven and earth. As for her garments, the scarf that she places on her head is better than the beauty of this world and all that is in it of delights and pleasure and natural beauty and splendid palaces and other kinds of luxuries. Glory be to their Creator, how great He is, and congratulations to the one for whom she is and he is for her.

Taken from IslamQA

Dowry (Mahr) of the Hoor:

The true mahr of al-hoor al-‘iyn is every good deed that brings one closer to Allaah, and is the cause of entering Paradise.

Al-Qurtubi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in al-Tadhkirah fi Ahwaal al-Mawtaa wa Umoor al-Aakhirah (p. 556):

Chapter on what is narrated about righteous deeds being the mahr of al-hoor al-‘iyn.

In this chapter he narrated some of the ahaadeeth quoted above, then he said:

Muhammad ibn al-Nu’maan al-Muqari said:

I was sitting with al-Jala al-Muqari in Makkah in al-Masjid al-Haraam, when a tall, lean-bodied old man dressed in rags passed by. Al-Jala got up and stood with him for a while, then came back to us and said: Do you know who this old man is? We said: No. He said: He bought from Allaah a hoor al-‘iyn for four thousand khatmahs (readings of the entire Qur’aan) and when he had completed it, he saw her in a dream, wearing her jewellery and finery. He said: Who are you? She said: I am al-hoor whom you bought from Allaah with four thousand khatmahs; this is the price, what will I get from you? He said: One thousand khatmahs. Al-Jala said: He is still working on that.

It was narrated from Sahnoon that he said: There was a man in Egypt called Sa’eed, and he had a mother who was a devoted worshipper. When he got up at night to pray qiyaam, his mother would pray behind him, and if he grew sleepy his mother would call out to him: O Sa’eed! There is no sleep for the one who fears Hell and wants to marry the beautiful hoor al-‘iyn. So he would get up out of alarm.

It was narrated from Thaabit that he said: My father was one of those who prayed qiyaam to Allaah in the depths of the night. He said: Last night I saw in my dream a woman who did not resemble the women of this world. I said to her: Who are you? She said: A hoor al-‘iyn, a female slave of Allaah. I said to her: Give yourself to me in marriage. She said: Propose to me through your Lord and give me a mahr. I said: What is your mahr? She said: Lengthy tahajjud.

Maalik ibn Dinar said: I had sections of the Quraan that I would read every night. I fell asleep one night and in my dream I saw a beautiful girl, with a piece of vellum in her hand. She said: Can you read? I said: Yes. She gave me the piece of vellum and on it was written these lines of poetry:

You are wasting your time in sleeping rather than seeking high goals

And seeking beautiful hoor al-‘iyn in Paradise.

There in Paradise you will have an eternal life and no death

And you will have delight with the beautiful hoor ‘iyn in splendid pavilions.

Wake up from your sleep, for what is better than sleeping is spending the night reciting the Qur’aan.

End quote.

Something similar was said by Ibn Rajab in his essay Ikhtiyaar al-Oola (p. 12) and in Lataa’if al-Ma’aarif(p. 159).

Taken from IslamQA

Further reading: Virtues of Martyrdom

The Story of Umm Haram Bint Milhan (radiallaahu `anhaa) (Hadith No. 2440)

Bismillah.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 47 :
Narrated by Anas bin Malik (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to visit Um Haram bint Milhan (radiallaahu `anhaa), who would offer him meals. Um Haram was the wife of Ubada bin As-Samit (radiallaahu `anhu). Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) once visited her and she provided him with food and started looking for lice in his head. Then Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) slept, and afterwards woke up smiling. Um Haram (radiallaahu `anhaa) asked, “What causes you to smile, O Allah’s Apostle?” He said. “Some of my followers who (in a dream) were presented before me as fighters in Allah’s Cause (on board a ship) amidst this sea cause me to smile; they were as kings on the thrones (or like kings on the thrones).” (Ishaq, a sub-narrator is not sure as to which expression the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used.) Um-Haram (radiallaahu `anhaa) said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Invoke Allah that he makes me one of them. Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) invoked Allah for her and slept again and woke up smiling. Once again Um Haram (radiallaahu `anhaa) asked, “What makes you smile, O Allah’s Apostle?” He replied, “Some of my followers were presented to me as fighters in Allah’s Cause,” repeating the same dream. Um Haram (radiallaahu `anhaa) said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Invoke Allah that He makes me one of them.” He said, “You are amongst the first ones.” It happened that she sailed on the sea during the Caliphate of Mu’awiya bin Abi Sufyan, and after she disembarked, she fell down from her riding animal and died.

Um Haram bint Milhan was an Ansari woman (from Madinah) and she was the sister of Um Sulaym, the mother of Anas ibn Malik. She was of the Ansar who embraced Islam before Hijra. Um Haram was first married to Amr ibn Qias bin Zaid with whom she had a son named Qais. Here husband and her son took part in the battle of Uhud and the battle of Badr and were both martyred. She later married Ubadah ibn AsSamit who was the chief of his clan and known for his bravery and military skill. He was one of the first Ansari men to participate in the Pledge of Aqaba. Ubadah also participated in the Battle of Badr and every battle and campaign with the Prophet ﷺ  before and after Hijra. He was a great husband and father and cared for Um Haram’s sons from her first marriage in the same way he cared for his own children.

Um Haram and Ubadah lived on a large, beautiful date palm plantation in the city of Quba, which was right outside of Madinah. This was the city that the Prophet ﷺ  stopped by on his hijra (migration) to Madinah for the first time. It became special to him and he would often visit it often. When he did so, one of the houses that he always stopped by and often napped in was Um Haram’s. The first time he went was to console Um Haram and Um Sulaym on the loss of their brothers, who died for the cause of Islam. Then he started to make a point to visit them more often and Um Malhan used to serve the Prophet ﷺ  his favorite foods and he would take naps in a special area they had made just for him. The Ansar (people of Madinah) are known for their hospitality, generosity and sacrifice. There is even a verse in the Quran that talks about this:

{And those who, before them (emigrants), had homes (in Madinah) and had adopted the Faith, love those who emigrate to them, and have no jealousy in their breasts for that which they have been given, and give them (emigrants) preference over themselves even though they were in need of that. And whosoever is saved from his own covetousness, such are they who will be successful} (Quran 59:9)

Anas ibn Malik relates that one time the Prophet ﷺ  came to visit him and his mother and aunt were there as well. The Prophet ﷺ  told them to rise so that he could lead them in a special prayer. After the prayer, he made duaa (supplication) that Allah would bless this family in both this world and the hereafter.

One day, the Prophet ﷺ  was taking a nap in Um Haram’s home and she saw him wake up smiling. Um Haram asked him what was making him smile and he replied, “Some people among my followers were shown to me, sailing over the green sea like kings over their thrones.” Um Haram then pleaded to the Prophet ﷺ , “O Messenger of Allah, invoke Allah that He makes me one of them.” The Prophet ﷺ  then went back to sleep and woke up again smiling. Um Haram thought he saw something new so she asked him again why he was smiling. He replied, “Some people among my followers were shown to me, sailing over the green sea like kings over their thrones.” Um Haram then repeated her plea, “O Messenger of Allah, invoke Allah that He makes me one of them.” “You are among the first,” he said to her.

Many years later, after the passing of the Prophet ﷺ , Um Haram accompanied her husband through his travels. Ubadah joined the Syrian army, which was led by Amir ibn Abdullah ibn Al Jarrah. He participated in all the battles until Syria had been conquered. Then a request was made to Umar ibn Al Khattab, who was the Calipha at the time, that a scholar was needed in Palestine to teach them the religion and be a judge among them and Ubadah was appointed by Umar for the job. He became the first teacher and judge in Palestine and settled there with Um Haram. Because of his high position, he became extremely popular. However, being the wife of such a prominent man did not get to Um Haram’s head and she remained as humble was she was living in her home in Quba. She would often dream of and remember what the Prophet ﷺ  had said to her about his dream.

A few years later, Ubadah was sent out to lead an army to assist Amr Ibn Al As in Egypt. Um Haram accompanied him to Egypt and afterwards they settled back in Syria, whose governor at that time was Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan. One of the biggest issues that Muawiyah was dealing with was that Syria’s coastline was constantly being attacked by Romans who were using Cyprus as their launch point. He wrote to Umar ibn Al Khattab to allow him to lead an army to Cyprus but Umar refused the request because he did not want to gamble with Muslims’ lives with all the dangers of traveling and fighting at sea. When Uthman bin Affan became the Calipha, Muawiyah made the same request and was able to convince Uthman to agree. However, Uthman told Muawiyah that he was not to force any Muslim to fight- they must volunteer on their own.

So Muawiyah sent out an announcement and many Muslims chose to fight against the Romans. He started building and preparing a fleet of ships. Meanwhile, Um Haram began to get very excited. She felt this might be what was in the Prophet’s ﷺ  dream and started preparing for her journey with the army. On the day that the ships were to depart, she was truly one of the first on them. With tears in her eyes, she watched as the boats sailed through the waves like kings on their thrones she repeated over and over again, “You spoke the truth, O Messenger of Allah ﷺ .”

After defeating a Roman coast guard that attacked them as they neared the island, the Muslim ships landed on the coast of Cyprus and started preparing for their invasion.  As they were preparing, Um Haram was given a horse for her to ride on during battle. Somehow the horse got frightened and jumped violently and Um Haram was thrown off. She eventually died from the injuries of that accident. It is said that she died smiling. She was buried where she fell off the coast of Cyprus and today her grave is still there for all to see. There is also a masjid that was built near her grave.

Um Haram lived a life full of journeys and adventures and traveling. She witnessed and participated in some of the greatest moments of Islamic history. May Allah be pleased with her and please her.

Taken from Mosaic of Muslim Women

Click here for further reading.

Question: Was Umm Haram a “mahram” of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)? If not, why was he alone with her?

Admit it, you were thinking about it! If not, read on for knowledge. Someone may try to turn you against Bukhari or hadith in general over this issue. SMH!

Umm Sulaym’s full name was Sahlah or Rumaylah or Mulaykah bint Milhaan ibn Khaalid ibn Zayd ibn Haraam ibn Jundub al-Ansaariyyah (may Allaah be pleased with her). She was the mother of Anas ibn Maalik (may Allaah be pleased with him), and is best known by her kunyah; there is some difference of opinion as to her given name. Al-Isaabah, 8/227.

Umm Haraam was the daughter of Milhaan (may Allaah be pleased with him), and was the sister of Umm Sulaym. Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr said: I could not find out her real name.

They were both mahrams of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).

Muslim (2331) narrated that Anas ibn Maalik said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to enter Umm Sulaym’s house and sleep on her mattress when she was not there. He came one day and slept on her mattress, then someone went to her and said to her, “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) is sleeping in your house on your bed.” She came and saw that he had sweated and his sweat had soaked a piece of cloth that was on the mattress. She opened her box and started collecting that sweat and squeezing it into bottles. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) woke with a start and said, “What are you doing, O Umm Sulaym?” She said, “O Messenger of Allaah, we hope for the barakah (blessing) of this sweat for our children.” He said, “You are right.”

Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

“The scholars are agreed that Umm Haraam was a mahram of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), but they differed as to how that came about. Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr and others said that she was one of his maternal aunts through radaa’ah (breastfeeding). Others said that she was the maternal aunt of his father or his grandfather, because ‘Abd al-Muttalib’s mother was from Banu al-Najjaar.”

He also said:

“Umm Haraam was the sister of Umm Sulaym, and they were maternal aunts of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and his mahrams, either through radaa’ah or through blood. So it was permissible for him to be alone with them and to enter upon them on his own, but he did not enter upon any other woman apart from his wives.

Taken from IslamQA

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