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Ghulool and its Punishment (Ahadith 2704 – 2705)

Bismillah.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 307 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) got up amongst us and mentioned Al Ghulul, emphasized its magnitude and declared that it was a great sin saying, “Don’t commit Ghulul for I should not like to see anyone amongst you on the Day of Resurrection, carrying over his neck a sheep that will be bleating, or carrying over his neck a horse that will be neighing. Such a man will be saying: ‘O Allah’s Apostle! Intercede with Allah for me,’ and I will reply, ‘I can’t help you, for I have conveyed Allah’s Message to you Nor should I like to see a man carrying over his neck, a camel that will be grunting. Such a man will say, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! Intercede with Allah for me, and I will say, ‘I can’t help you for I have conveyed Allah’s Message to you,’ or one carrying over his neck gold and silver and saying, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! Intercede with Allah for me,’ and I will say, ‘I can’t help you for I have conveyed Allah’s Message to you,’ or one carrying clothes that will be fluttering, and the man will say, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! Intercede with Allah for me.’ And I will say, ‘I can’t help you, for I have conveyed Allah’s Message to you.”

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 308 :
Narrated by ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr (radiallaahu `anhu)
There was a man who looked after the family and the belongings of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and he was called Karkara. The man died and Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “He is in the ‘(Hell) Fire.” The people then went to look at him and found in his place, a cloak he had stolen from the war booty.

Ghulool means breaching of a trust (khiyaanah). The term comes from the Quran directly when Allah addressed this issue by revealing the ayah:

وَمَا كَانَ لِنَبِيٍّ أَن يَغُلَّ ۚ وَمَن يَغْلُلْ يَأْتِ بِمَا غَلَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ۚ ثُمَّ تُوَفَّىٰ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَّا كَسَبَتْ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ

“It is not [attributable] to any prophet that he would act unfaithfully [in regard to war booty]. And whoever betrays, [taking unlawfully], will come with what he took on the Day of Resurrection. Then will every soul be [fully] compensated for what it earned, and they will not be wronged.” [Aal Imraan: 161]

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Ibn Kathir comments:

Allah said,

﴿وَمَا كَانَ لِنَبِىٍّ أَنْ يَغُلَّ﴾

(It is not for any Prophet to illegally take a part of the booty,)

Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and Al-Hasan said that the Ayah means, “It is not for a Prophet to breach the trust.” Ibn Jarir recorded that, Ibn `Abbas said that, this Ayah,

﴿وَمَا كَانَ لِنَبِىٍّ أَنْ يَغُلَّ﴾

(It is not for any Prophet to illegally take a part of the booty,) was revealed in connection with a red robe that was missing from the spoils of war of Badr. Some people said that the Messenger of Allah might have taken it. When this rumor circulated, Allah sent down,

﴿وَمَا كَانَ لِنَبِىٍّ أَنْ يَغُلَّ وَمَن يَغْلُلْ يَأْتِ بِمَا غَلَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ﴾

(It is not for any Prophet to illegally take a part of the booty, and whosoever is deceitful with the booty, he shall bring forth on the Day of Resurrection that which he took.)

This was also recorded by Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi, who said “Hasan Gharib”. This Ayah exonerates the Messenger of Allah of all types of deceit and treachery, be it returning what was entrusted with him, dividing the spoils of war, etc.

Allah then said,

﴿وَمَن يَغْلُلْ يَأْتِ بِمَا غَلَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ ثُمَّ تُوَفَّى كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَّا كَسَبَتْ وَهُمْ لاَ يُظْلَمُونَ﴾

(and whosoever is deceitful with the booty, he shall bring forth on the Day of Resurrection that which he took. Then every person shall be paid in full what he has earned, and they shall not be dealt with unjustly.)

This Ayah contains a stern warning and threat against Ghulul ﴿stealing from the booty﴾, and there are also Hadiths, that prohibit such practice. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Malik Al-Ashja`i said that the Prophet said,

«أَعْظَمُ الْغُلُولِ عِنْدَ اللهِ ذِرَاعٌ مِنَ الْأَرْضِ، تَجِدُون الرَّجُلَيْنِ جَارَيْنِ فِي الْأَرْضِ أو فِي الدَّارِ فَيَقْطَعُ أَحَدُهُمَا مِنْ حَظِّ صَاحِبِه ذِرَاعًا، فَإِذَا اقْتَطَعَهُ، طُوِّقَهُ مِنْ سَبْعِ أَرَضِينَ إِلى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَة»

(The worst Ghulul (i.e. stealing) with Allah is a yard of land, that is, when you find two neighbors in a land or home and one of them illegally acquires a yard of his neighbor’s land. When he does, he will be tied with it from the seven earths until the Day of Resurrection.)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Humayd As-Sa`idi said, “The Prophet appointed a man from the tribe of Al-Azd, called Ibn Al-Lutbiyyah, to collect the Zakah. When he returned he said, `This (portion) is for you and this has been given to me as a gift.’ The Prophet stood on the Minbar and said,

«مَا بَالُ الْعَامِلِ نَبْعَثُهُ فَيَجِي فَيَقُولُ: هَذَا لَكُمْ، وَهَذَا أُهْدِيَ لِي، أَفَلَا جَلَسَ فِي بَيْتِ أَبِيهِ وَأُمِّهِ فَيَنْظُرُ أَيُهْدَى إِلَيْهِ أَمْ لَا؟ وَالَّذِي نَفْسُ مُحَمَّدٍ بِيَدِهِ، لَا يَأْتِي أَحَدٌ مِنْكُمْ مِنْهَا بِشَيْءٍ إِلَّا جَاءَ بِهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ عَلى رَقَبَتِهِ، إِنْ كَانَ بَعِيرًا لَهُ رُغَاءٌ، أَوْ بَقَرَةٌ لَهَا خُوَارٌ، أَوْ شَاةٌ تَيْعَر»

ثم رفع يديه حتى رأينا عفرة إبطيه، ثم قال:

«اللَّهُمَّ هَلْ بَلَّغْت»

ثلاثًا.

(What is the matter with a man whom we appoint to collect Zakah, when he returns he said, `This is for you and this has been given to me as a gift.’ Why hadn’t he stayed in his father’s or mother’s house to see whether he would be given presents or not By Him in Whose Hand my life is, whoever takes anything from the resources of the Zakah (unlawfully), he will carry it on his neck on the Day of Resurrection; if it be a camel, it will be grunting; if a cow, it will be mooing; and if a sheep, it will be bleating. The Prophet then raised his hands till we saw the whiteness of his armpits, and he said thrice, `O Allah! Haven’t I conveyed Your Message.’)”

Hisham bin `Urwah added that Abu Humayd said, “I have seen him with my eyes and heard him with my ears, and ask Zayd bin Thabit.” This is recorded in the Two Sahihs .

In the book of Ahkam of his Sunan, Abu `Isa At-Tirmidhi recorded that Mu`adh bin Jabal said, “The Messenger of Allah sent me to Yemen, but when I started on the journey, he sent for me to come back and said,

«أَتَدْرِي لِمَ بَعَثْتُ إِلَيْكَ؟ لَا تُصِيبَنَّ شَيْئًا بِغَيْرِ إِذْنِي، فَإِنَّهُ غُلُول»

(Do you know why I summoned you back Do not take anything without my permission, for if you do, it will be Ghulul.)

﴿وَمَن يَغْلُلْ يَأْتِ بِمَا غَلَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ﴾

(and whosoever deceives his companions over the booty, he shall bring forth on the Day of Resurrection that which he took).

«لِهذَا دَعَوْتُكَ فَامْضِ لِعَمَلِك»

(This is why I summoned you, so now go and fulfill your mission.)” At-Tirmidhi said, “This Hadith is Hasan Gharib.”

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Umar’s [RA] Leadership (Hadith No. 2689)

Bismillah.

Ahadith 2686 – 2688 (below) are repeats. See linked text for related posts.

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 290 :
Narrated by Ibn ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) and a group of the companions of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) set out with the Prophet to Ibn Saiyad. He found him playing with some boys near the hillocks of Bani Maghala. Ibn Saiyad at that time was nearing his puberty. He did not notice (the Prophet’s presence) till the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) stroked him on the back with his hand and said, “Ibn Saiyad! Do you testify that I am Allah’s Apostle?” Ibn Saiyad looked at him and said, “I testify that you are the Apostle of the illiterates.” Then Ibn Saiyad asked the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam), “Do you testify that I am the apostle of Allah?” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said to him, “I believe in Allah and His Apostles.” Then the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said (to Ibn Saiyad). “What do you see?” Ibn Saiyad replied, “True people and false ones visit me.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Your mind is confused as to this matter.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) added, ” I have kept something (in my mind) for you.” Ibn Saiyad said, “It is Ad-Dukh.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said (to him), “Shame be on you! You cannot cross your limits.” On that ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Allow me to chop his head off.” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “If he should be him (i.e. Ad-Dajjal) then you cannot overpower him, and should he not be him, then you are not going to benefit by murdering him.”

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 290 :
Narrated by Ibn Umar (radiallaahu `anhu)
(Later on) Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) (once again) went along with Ubai bin Ka’b (radiallaahu `anhu) to the garden of date-palms where Ibn Saiyad was staying. When the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) entered the garden, he started hiding himself behind the trunks of the date-palms as he wanted to hear something from the Ibn Saiyad before the latter could see him. Ibn Saiyad was lying in his bed, covered with a velvet sheet from where his murmurs were heard. Ibn Saiyad’s mother saw the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) while he was hiding himself behind the trunks of the date-palms. She addressed Ibn Saiyad, “O Saf!” (And this was his name). Ibn Saiyad got up. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Had this woman let him to himself, he would have revealed the reality of his case.” Then the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) got up amongst the people, glorifying Allah as He deserves, he mentioned Ad-Dajjal, saying, “I warn you about him (i.e. Ad-Dajjal) and there is no prophet who did not warn his nation about him, and Noah warned his nation about him, but I tell you a statement which no prophet informed his nation of. You should understand that he is a one-eyed man and Allah is not one-eyed.”

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 291 :
Narrated by Usama bin Zaid (radiallaahu `anhu)
I asked the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) during his Hajj, “O Allah’s Apostle! Where will you stay tomorrow?” He said, “Has Aqil left for us any house?” He then added, “Tomorrow we will stay at Khaif Bani Kinana, i.e. Al-Muhassab, where (the Pagans of) Quraish took an oath of Kufr (i.e. to be loyal to heathenism) in that Bani Kinana got allied with Quraish against Bani Hashim on the terms that they would not deal with the members of the is tribe or give them shelter.” (Az-Zuhri said, “Khaif means valley.”) (See Hadith No. 659, Vol. 2)

Today’s Hadith:

Volume 4, Book 52, Number 292 :
Narrated by Aslam
Umar bin Al-Khattab (radiallaahu `anhu) appointed a freed slave of his, called Hunai, manager of the Hima (i.e. a pasture devoted for grazing the animals of the Zakat or other specified animals). He said to him, “O Hunai! Don’t oppress the Muslims and ward off their curse (invocations against you) for the invocation of the oppressed is responded to (by Allah); and allow the shepherd having a few camels and those having a few sheep (to graze their animals), and take care not to allow the livestock of ‘Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Auf and the livestock of (‘Uthman) bin ‘Affan (radiallaahu `anhumaa), for if their livestock should perish, then they have their farms and gardens, while those who own a few camels and those who own a few sheep, if their livestock should perish, would bring their dependents to me and appeal for help saying, ‘O chief of the believers! O chief of the believers!’ Would I then neglect them? (No, of course). So, I find it easier to let them have water and grass rather than to give them gold and silver (from the Muslims’ treasury). By Allah, these people think that I have been unjust to them. This is their land, and during the pre-lslamic period, they fought for it and they embraced Islam (willingly) while it was in their possession. By Him in Whose Hand my life is! Were it not for the animals (in my custody) which I give to be ridden for striving in Allah’s Cause, I would not have turned even a span of their land into a Hima.”

Look at Umar’s (radiallaahu `anhu) instructions to his freed slave.. he’s asking him to prefer the weak and poor over the rich and powerful. Everything he did in his caliphate speaks volumes about his wisdom and remarkable justice. He raised the bar to such heights for all future leaders of the ummah. Has anyone even come close yet?

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Grazing Animals (Hadith No. 2055)

Bismillah.

Hadith no. 2054 (below) is a repeat. Read it here.

Volume 3, Book 40, Number 557 :
Narrated by Abu Huraira (radiallaahu `anhu)
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “There are three types of people whom Allah will neither talk to, nor look at, on the Day of Resurrection. (They are): 1. A man who takes an oath falsely that he has been offered for his goods so much more than what he is given, 2. a man who takes a false oath after the ‘Asr prayer in order to grab a Muslim’s property, and 3. a man who with-holds his superfluous water. Allah will say to him, “Today I will with-hold My Grace from you as you with-held the superfluity of what you had not created.”

Today’s Hadith:

Volume 3, Book 40, Number 558 :
Narrated by As-Sab bin Jaththama (radiallaahu `anhu)
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, No Hima except for Allah and His Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam). We have been told that Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) made a place called An-Naqi’ as Hima, and ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) made Ash-Sharaf and Ar-Rabadha Hima (for grazing the animals of Zakat).

Himaa is the grazing pasture/ground for animals. The Hadith implies that one should not stop others from grazing their animals in open grounds. They should be open for public.

Did you know? There is no Zakah on animals (an`aam) that do not graze, and are fed – money being spent on them. Read more here.

Your Job is to Give (Hadith No. 1201)

Bismillah.

Volume 2, Book 24, Number 502:

Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah’s Apostle (p.b.u.h) said, “A man said that he would give something in charity. He went out with his object of charity and unknowingly gave it to a thief. Next morning the people said that he had given his object of charity to a thief. (On hearing that) he said, “O Allah! All the praises are for you. I will give alms again.” And so he again went out with his alms and (unknowingly) gave it to an adulteress. Next morning the people said that he had given his alms to an adulteress last night. The man said, “O Allah! All the praises are for you. (I gave my alms) to an adulteress. I will give alms again.” So he went out with his alms again and (unknowingly) gave it to a rich person. (The people) next morning said that he had given his alms to a wealthy person. He said, “O Allah! All the praises are for you. (I had given alms) to a thief, to an adulteress and to a wealthy man.” Then someone came and said to him, “The alms which you gave to the thief, might make him abstain from stealing, and that given to the adulteress might make her abstain from illegal sexual intercourse (adultery), and that given to the wealthy man might make him take a lesson from it and spend his wealth which Allah has given him, in Allah’s cause.”

It’s good to keep a check on the person/place you’re spending on. But, let’s say, your charity went to someone not really ‘deserving’ (or so it might seem), then you don’t need to think it won’t get accepted. Your job was to give. And it’s for Allah to accept. So leave it on him. :)

The Bare Minimum (Ahadith 1177 – 1182)

Bismillah.

Volume 2, Book 23, Number 478:

Narrated Ibn Abbas:

Thy Prophet sent Muadh to Yemen and said, “Invite the people to testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and I am Allah’s Apostle, and if they obey you to do so, then teach them that Allah has enjoined on them five prayers in every day and night (in twenty-four hours), and if they obey you to do so, then teach them that Allah has made it obligatory for them to pay the Zakat from their property and it is to be taken from the wealthy among them and given to the poor.”

Volume 2, Book 23, Number 479:

Narrated Abu Aiyub:

A man said to the Prophet “Tell me of such a deed as will make me enter Paradise.” The people said, “What is the matter with him? What is the matter with him?” The Prophet said, “He has something to ask. (What he needs greatly) The Prophet said: (In order to enter Paradise) you should worship Allah and do not ascribe any partners to Him, offer prayer perfectly, pay the Zakat and keep good relations with your Kith and kin.” (See Hadith No. 12, Vol 8).

Volume 2, Book 23, Number 480:

Narrated Abu Huraira:

A Bedouin came to the Prophet and said, “Tell me of such a deed as will make me enter Paradise, if I do it.” The Prophet (p.b.u.h) said, “Worship Allah, and worship none along with Him, offer the (five) prescribed compulsory prayers perfectly, pay the compulsory Zakat, and fast the month of Ramadan.” The Bedouin said, “By Him, in Whose Hands my life is, I will not do more than this.” When he (the Bedouin) left, the Prophet said, “Whoever likes to see a man of Paradise, then he may look at this man.”

Volume 2, Book 23, Number 481:

Narrated Abu Zur’a:

from the Prophet the same as above.

Volume 2, Book 23, Number 482:

Narrated Ibn Abbas:

A delegation of the tribe of ‘Abdul Qais came to the Prophet and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! We are from the tribe of Rabi’a, and the infidels of the tribe of Mudar stands between us and you; so we cannot come to you except during the Sacred Months. Please order us to do something (religious deeds) which we may carry out and also invite to it our people whom we have left behind.” The Prophet said, “I order you to do four things and forbid you four others: (I order you) to have faith in Allah, and confess that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah, (and the Prophet gestured with his hand like this (i.e. one knot) and to offer prayers perfectly and to pay the Zakat, and to pay one-fifth of the booty in Allah’s Cause. And I forbid you to use Dubba’, Hantam, Naqir and Muzaffat (all these are the names of utensils used for preparing alcoholic drinks).”

Already discussed here.

Volume 2, Book 23, Number 483:

Narrated Abu Huraira:

When Allah’s Apostle died and Abu Bakr became the caliph some Arabs renegade (reverted to disbelief) (Abu Bakr decided to declare war against them), ‘Umar, said to Abu Bakr, “How can you fight with these people although Allah’s Apostle said, ‘I have been ordered (by Allah) to fight the people till they say: “None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and whoever said it then he will save his life and property from me except on trespassing the law (rights and conditions for which he will be punished justly), and his accounts will be with Allah.’ ” Abu Bakr said, “By Allah! I will fight those who differentiate between the prayer and the Zakat as Zakat is the compulsory right to be taken from the property (according to Allah’s orders) By Allah! If they refuse to pay me even a she-kid which they used to pay at the time of Allah’s Apostle . I would fight with them for withholding it” Then ‘Umar said, “By Allah, it was nothing, but Allah opened Abu Bakr’s chest towards the decision (to fight) and I came to know that his decision was right.”

Here’s what I think.. The five pillars of Islam [testimony of faith, prayer, charity, fasting, pilgrimage] are the most essential parts of the Deen. YET, a person fulfilling all these duties is doing only the bare minimum, only that which will be sufficient to help him enter Paradise (if Allah wills). So there’s a lot more to our Deen. Keep exploring it!

Kitaab-ul-Janaa’iz [Book of Funerals] ends here. Alhamdulillah.

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