Narrated Ibn Abbas (radiallaahu `anhu):
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) arrived at Mecca and performed Tawaf of the Kaba and Sa’i between Safa and Marwa, but he did not go near the Kaba after his Tawaf till he returned from Arafat.
The first one is called Tawaaf al-Qudoom and the one after `Arafaat is Tawaaf al-ifaadah during Hajj, which is also called tawaaf al-ziyaarah (tawaaf of visiting). It takes place after the standing in ‘Arafah, on the day of al-Adha or after it. It is one of the pillars or essential parts of the Hajj.
‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa) said, “The first thing the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) did on reaching Mecca, was the ablution and then he performed Tawaf of the Ka’ba and that was not ‘Umra (alone), (but Hajj-al-Qiran). ‘Urwa added: Later Abu Bakr (radiallaahu `anhu) and ‘Umar (radiallaahu `anhu) did the same in their Hajj.” And I performed the Hajj with my father Az-Zubair (radiallaahu `anhu), and the first thing he did was Tawaf of the Ka’ba. Later I saw the Muhajirin (Emigrants) and the Ansar doing the same. My mother (Asma’ (radiallaahu `anhaa)) told me that she, her sister (‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa)), Az-Zubair (radiallaahu `anhu) and such and such persons assumed Ihram for ‘Umra, and after they passed their hands over the Black Stone Corner (of the Ka’ba) they finished the Ihram. (i.e. After doing Tawaf of the Ka’ba and Sa’i between Safa-Marwa.
This is Tawaaf al-qudoom (tawaaf of arrival) for Hajj. This is done by the pilgrim who has entered ihraam for Hajj and by the pilgrim who is doing Qiraan, i.e., joining ‘Umrah and Hajj, when he reaches the Ka’bah. It is one of the obligatory duties or Sunnahs of Hajj – there is a difference of scholarly opinion.
More types of tawaaf here.