Category Archives: Hadith 101
السلام علیکم ورحمته اللہ وبرکاته
بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم
Sihah Sittah – صحاح سته
The six major ( الكتب السته; Al-Kutub Al-Sittah) are the collection of hadeeth by different Islamic scholars (May Allaah be pleased with them). They are sometimes referred to as Al-Sihah al-Sittah, الصحیه السته “The Authentic Six”.
The names of books and authors are:
Name of the Book
Imam Muhammad al-Bukhari
Imam Ahmad an-Nasai
Sunan Abu Daud
سنن أبی داؤد
Imam Abu Daud
Imam Muhammad Tirmizi
سنن ابن ماجه
Imaam Ibn Maajah
There follow brief details about each of them.
1. Imam al-Bukhaari
His full name was Abu ‘Abd-Allaah Muhammad ibn Ismaa’eel ibn Ibraaheem ibn al-Mugheerah ibn Bardizbah al-Ja’fi al-Bukhaari. His grandfather al-Mugheerah was a freed slave of al-Yamaan al-Ja’fi, the governor of Bukhaarah, so he took his name after he became Muslim. Imam al-Bukhaari was born in Bukhaara in 194 AH. He grew up an orphan and started to memorize ahaadeeth before he was ten years old. When he was a young man he set out to travel to Makkah and perform the obligation of Hajj. He stayed in Makkah for a while, studying under the imams of fiqh, usool and hadeeth. Then he began to travel around, going from one Islamic region to another, for sixteen years in all. He visited many centers of knowledge where he collected ahaadeeth of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) until he had compiled more than 600,000 ahaadeeth. He referred to one thousand scholars of hadeeth and discussed these reports with them. These scholars were people who were known for their sincerity, piety and sound belief. From this huge number of ahaadeeth he compiled his book Al-Saheeh Bukhari, following the most precise scientific guidelines in his research as to their authenticity and in distinguishing the saheeh (sound) from the weak, and in finding out about the narrators, until he recorded in his book the most sound of the sound, although it does not contain all the saheeh ahaadeeth. The book’s full title is “Al-Jaami’ al-Saheeh al-Musnad min Hadeeth Rasool-Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) wa Sunanihi wa Ayaamihi”
The governor of Bukhaara wanted al-Bukhaari to come to his house to teach his children and read ahaadeeth to them. But al-Bukhaari refused and wrote to him: “Knowledge is to be sought in its own house,” meaning that knowledge is to be sought not summoned. Whoever wanted to learn from the scholars should go to them in the mosque or in their houses. So the governor bore a grudge against him and ordered that he be expelled from Bukhaara. So he went to the village of Khartank which is near Samarqand, where he had relatives, and he settled there until he died in 256 AH at the age of 62. May Allaah have mercy upon him.
2. Imam Muslim
His full name was Muslim ibn al-Hajjaaj ibn Muslim al-Qushayri al-Nisapoori Abu’l-Husayn. He is one of the leading scholars of hadeeth and one of the most knowledgeable. He was born in Nisapoor on the day that Imam al-Shaafa’i died in 204 AH. He studied in Nisapoor, and when he grew up he traveled to Iraq and the Hijaaz to learn hadeeth. He heard ahaadeeth from many shaykhs, and many scholars of hadeeth narrated from him. The most famous of his books is his Saheeh which is known as Saheeh Muslim. This is one of the six reliable books of hadeeth. He spent nearly fifteen years compiling this book, which is second only to Saheeh al-Bukhaari in status and in the strength of its ahaadeeth. Many scholars have written commentaries on his Saheeh.
His books also include Kitaab al-Tabaqaat, Kitaab al-Jaami’ and Kitaab al-Asma’, and others which exist in printed and manuscript form. He died in the city of Nasarabad, near Nisapoor, in 261 AH, at the age of 57. May Allaah have mercy on him.
3. Imam Abu Dawood
His full name was Sulaymaan ibn al-Ash’ath ibn Shaddaad ibn ‘Amr ibn Ishaaq ibn Basheer al-Azdi al-Sajistani, from Sajistan. Abu Dawood was the leading hadeeth scholar of his age. He is the author of Al-Sunan, which is one of the six reliable books of hadeeth. He was born in 202 AH. He traveled to Baghdad where he met Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal and stayed with him; he also looked like him. He also traveled to the Hijaz, Iraq, Khurasaan, Syria, Egypt and the borders of the Islamic world. Al-Nasaa’i, al-Tirmidhi and others narrated hadeeth from him. He attained the highest degree of piety and righteousness. His book al-Sunan includes more than 5300 ahaadeeth.
The caliph Abu Ahmad Talhah (al-Muwaffaq al-‘Abbaasi) asked three things of him:
the first was that he should move to Basrah and settle there, so that seekers of knowledge could come to him, thus bringing more people to settle there. The second was that he should teach Al-Sunan to his children. The third was that he should give exclusive classes to his children, for the children of the caliph should not sit with the common people. Abu Dawood said to him: As for the first, yes; as for the second, yes; as for the third, no way, because all people are equal when it comes to knowledge. So the sons of al-Muwaffaq al-‘Abbaasi used to attend his lessons, and they would sit with a screen between them and the people. He remained in Basrah until he died in 275 AH. May Allaah have mercy on him.
4. Imam al-Tirmidhi
His full name was Muhammad ibn ‘Eesa ibn Soorah ibn Moosa ibn al-Dahhaak al-Salami al-Tirmidhi, Abu Eesa. He came from Tirmidh, once of the cities of Transoxiana, after which he was named. He was one of the leading scholars of hadeeth and memorization of hadeeth. He was born in 209 AH and studied under al-Bukhaari; they had some of the same teachers. He began to seek ahaadeeth by travelling to Khurasaan, Iraq and the Hijaz. He became famous for his memorization of hadeeth, trustworthiness and knowledge. His shaykhs included Ahmad ibn Hanbal and Abu Dawood al-Sajistani. He compiled Al-Jaami’ which is counted as one of the six reliable books of hadeeth. In this book he examined the ahaadeeth in detail, which is of benefit to students of fiqh, because he mentions the ahaadeeth and most of his ahaadeeth deal with rulings of fiqh. He mentions the isnaads and lists the Sahaabah who narrated the hadeeth, so what he believes is saheeh he says is saheeh, and what he believes is da’eef he says is da’eef. He explains who among the fuqaha’ accepted the hadeeth and who did not. His Jaami’ is the most comprehensive of the books of Al-Sunan, and is the most useful to the muhaddith (hadeeth scholar) and faqeeh. His other works include Kitaab al-Shamaa’il al-Nabawiyyah and Al-‘Ilal fi’l-Hadeeth. He was blind for the latter part of his life, after he had travelled around and compiled saheeh reports from prominent and well-versed scholars. He died in 279 AH at the age of 70. May Allaah have mercy on him.
5. Imam al-Nasaa’i
His full name was Ahmad ibn Shu’ayb ibn ‘Ali ibn Sinaan ibn Bahr ibn Dinar al-Nasaa’i, Abu ‘Abd al-Rahmaan. He came from the city of Nasa in Khurasaan, after which he was named (Nasawi or Nasaa’i). He was born in 215 AH, and he was one of the leading scholars and muhaddiths of his time. His comments on Al-jarh wa’l-ta’deel (the study of the soundness or otherwise of narrators of hadeeth) are highly esteemed by the scholars.
Al-Haakim said: I heard Abu’l-Hasan al-Daaraqutni say more than once, “Abu ‘Abd al-Rahmaan is the foremost among all scholars of hadeeth, and he is the best evaluator of narrators of his time.”
He was extremely pious and righteous, and he used to regularly observe the best kind of fasting (the fasting of Dawood), he used to fast on alternate days. He lived in Egypt, where his books became famous and people learned from him. Then he moved to Damascus, where he died on Monday 13 Safar 300 AH, at the age of 85. May Allaah have mercy on him.
6. Imam Ibn Maajah
His full name was Muhammad ibn Yazeed al-Rab’i al-Qazwayni, Abu ‘Abd-Allaah. His father Yazeed was known as Maajah, so he was known as Ibn Maajah. The name al-Rab’i refers to Rabee’ah, after whom he was named because his father was a freed slave of Rabee’ah . He was a famous hafiz and the author of the book of hadeeth called Al-Sunan. He was born in Qazwayn, after which he was named, in 209 AH. He travelled to Iraq, Basrah, Kufa, Baghdad, Makkah, Syria, Egypt and al-Rai to write down hadeeth. He wrote three books during his travels: a book on Tafseer; a book on History, in which he compiled the reports of men who had written down reports of the Sunnah from the time of the Sahaabah until his own time; and his book Al-Sunan. Ibn Maajah died on Monday 22 Ramadaan 273 AH, at the age of 64. May Allaah have mercy on him.
Ruling on the Ahaadeeth in these books:
With regard to Saheeh al-Bukhaari and Saheeh Muslim, the ummah accepts the ahaadeeth that are contained in these books, and they are agreed that everything in them is saheeh apart from a very few phrases which al-Bukhaari and Muslim narrated in order to explain why they are not sound, either explicitly or implicitly, as the scholars who wrote commentaries on these two books, such as Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him), have explained. With regard to the other books of Sunan, they are not free of some da’eef (weak) ahaadeeth here and there. Some of them are noted as such by the authors themselves, and others have been pointed out by other scholars. They did not point out all the weak ahaadeeth, because they narrated the ahaadeeth with their isnaads, so it is easy for the scholars to tell the saheeh ahaadeeth from the da’eef by checking the chain of narrators and knowing who is reliable and who is weak.
Among the famous scholars in this field were Ahmad, al-Daraqutni, Yahya ibn Ma’een, Ibn Hajar, al-Dhahabi, al-Waaqi and al-Sakhaawi. Among the contemporary scholars in this field are al-Albaani, Ahmad Shaakir and others. May Allaah have mercy on them all.
And Allaah knows best.
Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid
بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم
السلام علیکم ورحمته اللہ وبرکاته
A Musnad (plural: masaaneed) is a book in which the author has placed the ahadeeth narrated by each companion in separate chapters, each of them under the name of the relevant companion. Among the Masaneed are the Musnad of Abdu bin Humaid, the Musnad of Ad Darimi, the Musnad of Abu Yala, the Musnad of Al Bazzar, the Musnad of Abu Dawood, the Musnad of Al Hasan bin Sufyan, the Musnad of Ishaq bin Rahawaih, the Musnad of Ubaidullah bin Musa and the Musnad of Imaam Ahmad.
Musnad of Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal:
The most important and exhaustive of all the Musnad works available to us is that of Imaam Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Hanbal al-Marwazee ash-Shaybaanee. Ibn Hanbal, may Allaah be pleased with him, was descended from the Arab Shaybaanee tribe. He was born in Marw, where his father had gone for the purpose of Jihaad in 780 CE and was carefully brought up by his pious mother, Safiyyah bint Maymoonah in Baghdad. His father died at the age of 30, while Ahmad was quite young. He received his early education from the leading scholars of the region, and began the serious study of hadeeth at the age of 15 under Ibraaheem ibn ‘Ulayyah. After studying with all the major hadeeth experts of the capital, he began to travel in search of knowledge in 799. He wandered through Basra, Kufa, the Yemen, the Hijaaz, and other centers of hadeeth learning, attending the lectures of the traditionists, taking notes, and discussing them with scholars and fellow students. He finally returned to Baghdad in 810, where he met Imaam al-Shaafi‘ee and with whom he studied fiqh and usooI al-fiqh.
He made the service and teaching of the Prophet’s message the sole object of his life, and continued doing that until 833, when a storm of persecution erupted against the orthodox theologians throughout the ‘Abbaasid Empire. Caliph al-Ma’moon, under the influence of his philosophically minded associates, publicly accepted the Mu‘tazilite creed, including the notion that the Qur’aan was created. When most scholars refused to join him in his conversion, he first threatened, and then persecuted them. Many scholars, including Imaam Ahmad May Allaah be pleased with him, refused to yield. The Caliph, who was then at Tarsus, ordered that they should be put in chains and sent to him. Although these orders were carried out, al-Ma’moon died before his devout prisoners had reached their destination.The Caliph had made a will wherein he asked his successor to carry out his wishes with regard to the propagation of the doctrine on the creation of the Qur’aan. His two immediate successors, al Mu‘tasim and al-Waathiq, fiercely carried out this policy. This Mihnah (persecution) continued with varying vigour until the third year of the reign of al-Mutawakkil, who, in the year 848, finally put a stop to it and returned to mainstream Sunni belief.
Imam Ahmad was being punished, and its narrated:
تقدم إليه ابن أبي دؤاد، وقال له: يا أحمد قل في أذني القرآن مخلوق حتى أخلصك من يد الخليفة؛ فقال له الإمام أحمد: يا بن أبي دؤاد قل في أذني القرآن كلام الله وليس بمخلوق حتى أخلصك من عذاب الله عز وجل
Ibn Abi Du’ad came to him and said, ‘O Ahmad, say in my ear: ‘The Qur’an is created,’ so that I may save you from the hand of the Caliph.’ So Imam Ahmad said to him, “O Ibn Abi Du’ad, say in my ear: ‘The Qur’an is the Speech of Allaah, it is not created,’ so that I save you from the punishment of Allah, the Mighty and Majestic!!”
[“Al-Manhaj Al-Ahmad”, 1/35]
After the mihnah was over, Imaam Ahmad lived for about eight years. Most of this period, he devoted to teaching, while the rest he spent in prayers and the remembrance of Allaah. Throughout his life Ibn Hambal inspired those who knew him with his pious character. He boycotted his sons, Saalih and ‘Abdullaah, because they had accepted stipends from the caliph.
Ibn Hambal’s Musnad occupies an important place in hadeeth literature, and has served as an important source for various writers on the different genres of Arabic literature.
Satan talking to Imam Ahmed on his death bed
Abdullah bin Ahmed said:
“When death approached my father, I sat with him and in my hand was a scrap of cloth with which I wanted to tie his beard and he began to drift in and out of consciousness, then he opened his eyes and said, indicating with his hand: “No, not yet. No, not yet” And he repeated it three times. After the third repetition ,I said to him: Oh, my father! What is this thing which you have said at this time? You fall into unconsciousness so that we say that you have gone,then you return (to consciousness) and say: “No, not yet. No, not yet”
He said to me : Oh, my son! Do you not know?” I said: “No”.
He said :” Satan – May Allah’s curse be upon him – stood before me, he lowered himself on his knuckles and said to me:”Oh, Ahmad! You have eluded me.” But I replied: “No, not yet, not yet until I die.”
May Allaah Subhanahu wa tal’aa give us Hidaya and Emaan. Aameen.
بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم
السلام علیکم ورحمته اللہ وبرکاته
Inshaa’Allaah in this post and the upcoming one I’ll discuss about the most authentic books and sources of hadeeth, just a little introduction about the hard work of the authors, who dedicated their whole lives for the noble `ilm (knowledge). May Allaah be pleased with them. Aameen.
The early sources of hadeeth fall into three distinct groups.
- Firstly, there were books on Maghaazee (almost synonymous with Seerah) – such as those of Ibn Is’haaq and others – in which hadeeths of a historical nature are to be found.
- Secondly, there were books on Fiqh, such as the Muwatta’ of Imaam Maalik and Kitaab al-Umm of Imaam al-Shaafi‘ee, which contain a large number of legal hadeeths, cited in the context of legal discussions and mingled with rulings and practices of the Companions and their students.
- Finally, there are works that are strictly collections of Hadeeth such as Saheeh al-Bukhari.
Today Inshaa’Allaah I will discuss about Muwatta’ of Imam Maalik..
The Muwatta’ of Imam Maalik:
Maalik ibn Anas ibn ‘Aamir, was born in Madeenah in the year 717 CE. His grandfather, ‘Aamir, was among the major Sahaabah of Madeenah. Maalik May Allaah be pleased with him studied Hadeeth under Az-Zuhree May Allaah be pleased with him who was the greatest hadeeth scholar of his time. as well as under the great hadeeth narrator, Naafi‘, the freed slave of the Sahabee ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar Radiyallaah’anhu. Maalik’s May Allaah be pleased with him only journeys outside of Madeenah were for Hajj, and thus he largely limited himself to the knowledge available in Madeenah. Imaam Maalik continued to teach hadeeth in Madeenah over a period of forty years and he managed to compile a book containing hadeeths of the Prophet Sallallaahu’alayhi wa salaam and rulings of the Sahaabah and their successors which he named Al-Muwatta’ (the Beaten Path). Abbaasid caliph, Aboo Ja‘far al-Mansoor (754-755 CE) who wanted a comprehensive code of law based on the Prophet’s Sallallaahu’alayhi wa salaam’s Sunnah which could be applied uniformly throughout his realm. But, on its completion, Imaam Maalik refused to have it forced on the people pointing out that the Sahaabah had scattered throughout the Islamic empire and had taken with them other parts of the Sunnah which also had to be considered in any laws imposed throughout the state. Caliph Haaroon ar-Rasheed (768-809 CE) also made the same request of the Imaam, but he was also turned down. Imaam Maalik died in the city of his birth in the year 801CE at the venerable age of 83.
Respect for Hadeeth:
Ma’n b. ‘Îsa Al-Qazzâz reports:
Whenever Maalik bin ‘Anas Allaah have mercy on him – would sit to narrate hadeeth he would bath and perfume himself. If anyone raised his voice in the gathering [Imam Maalik] would reprimand him and say, “Lower your voice, for Allah tabâraka wa ta’âlâ said:
O Believers! Do not raise your voices over that of the Prophet [Sûrah Al-Hujarât: 2]
Whoever raises his voice over the sound of the hadeeth of Allah’s Messenger Sallallaahu’alayhi wa salaam then it is as if he is raising his voice over that of the Prophet Sallallaahu’alayhi wa salaam”
Nasr b. Ibrâhîm Al-Maqdisî in Mukhtasar Al-Hujjah ‘alâ Târik Al-Mahajjah Vol.1 p121.
Lastly I just want to share one of my favorite quote of Imaam Maalik may Allaah be pleased with him:
May Allaah Subhanahu wa ta’laa give us Hidayah and guide us to the path of the righteous people. Aameen.
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
السلام علیکم ورحمة اللہ وبرکاته
Most of time we use the word that this Hadeeth is al-Hadeeth al-Qudsi…Many of us know about it Alhamdulillah. :)
But sometimes its meaning is not well-understood and most of the sects (like Al-Jahmiyyah Al-Ja’diyyah, Al-Mu’tazilah Az-Zaidiyyah and Al-Karraamiyyah As-Sijistaaniyyah) say concerning al-Hadeeth al-Qudsi that its wording is from the Prophet (sallalaahu alaihi wa sallam) and its meaning is from Allaah The Mighty and Majestic, and this is also their belief with regards to the Qur’aan. Yet no one from amongst the Salaf said this, rather what the Salaf were upon was that al-Hadeeth al-Qudsi is the speech of Allaah The Mighty and Majestic, so the Prophet (Sallaallaahu ‘alyhi wa sallam) would say: ‘Allaah says’ and this is a reality which does not have an aversion for it, therefore it is to be said:
“that al-Hadeeth al-Qudsi is the speech of Allaah the Mighty and Majestic in wording and meaning”.
Al-Hadeeth al-Qudsi are Allaah’s Words that are not created, they are similar to the Qur’an such as Allaah’s Saying (Glorified and Exalted be He) in respect of what the Prophet (Sallaallaahu alayhi wa sallaam) narrated from Him (Glorified be He):
“ALLAAH (Mighty and Sublime be He) said:
“Pride is My cloak and greatness My robe, and he who competes with Me in respect of either of them I shall cast into Hell-fire”
عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ:
” قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: الْكِبْرِيَاءُ رِدَائِي، وَالْعَظَمَةُ إِزَارِي، فَمَنْ نَازَعَنِي وَاحِدًا مِنْهُمَا، قَذَفْتُهُ فِي النَّارِ”.
رواه أبو داود(وكذلك ابن ماجه وأحمد) بأسانيد صحيحة
May Allaah (subhanahu wa ta’laa) give us hidayah. Aameen.
بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم
Fabricated Narration No. 2:
“Learn witchcraft (sihr), but do not use it”.
This narration is false and has no basis. It is not permissible to learn witchcraft or to use it. It is an evil action and is kufr and misguidance. Allaah clearly stated that witchcraft is forbidden in His Book, where He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“They followed what the Shayaateen (devils) gave out (falsely of the magic) in the lifetime of Sulaymaan (Solomon). Sulaymaan did not disbelieve, but the Shayaateen (devils) disbelieved, teaching men magic and such things that came down at mm to the two angels, Haaroot and Maaroot, but neither of these two (angels) taught anyone (such things) till they had said, ‘We are for trial, so disbelieve not (by learning this magic from us).’ And from these (angels) people learn that by which they cause separation between man and his wife, but they could not thus harm anyone except by Allaah’s Leave. And they learn that which harms them and profits them not. And indeed they knew that the buyers of it (magic) would have no share in the Hereafter. And how bad indeed was that for which they sold their ownselves, if they but knew. And if they had believed and guarded themselves from evil and kept their duty to Allaah, far better would have been the reward from their Lord, if they but knew!”
[Al-Baqarah 2: 102-103]
In these verses, Allaah clearly states that witchcraft is kufr and that it is from the teachings of the devils. Allaah has condemned them for that, and they are our enemies. And He has stated that teaching witchcraft is kufr and that it is harmful and not beneficial, so we must beware of it.
Majmoo’ Fataawa wa Maqaalaat Mutanawwi’ah li’l-Shaykh Ibn Baaz, 6/371