When is I’tikaaf? (Hadith No. 1751)
Hadith no. 1749 and 1750 (below) are repeats. Read the post here.
Volume 3, Book 33, Number 254:
Narrated ‘Ali bin Al-Husain (from Safiya, the Prophet’s wife):
The wives of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) were with him in the mosque (while he was in Itikaf) and then they departed and the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said to Safiya bint Huyai (radiallaahu `anhaa), “Don’t hurry up, for I shall accompany you,” (and her dwelling was in the house of Usama). The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) went out and in the meantime two Ansari men met him and they looked at the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and passed by. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said to them, “Come here. She is (my wife) Safiya bint Huyai.” They replied, “Subhan Allah, (How dare we think of evil) O Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)! (we never expect anything bad from you).” The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) replied, “Satan circulates in the human being as blood circulates in the body, and I was afraid lest Satan might insert an evil thought in your minds.”
Volume 3, Book 33, Number 255:
Narrated ‘Ali bin Al-Husain from Safiya (radiallaahu `anhaa):
Safiya (radiallaahu `anhaa) went to the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) while he was in Itikaf. When she returned, the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) accompanied her walking. An Ansari man saw him. When the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) noticed him, he called him and said, “Come here. She is Safiya (radiallaahu `anhaa). (Sufyan a sub-narrator perhaps said that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) had said, “This is Safiya”). And Satan circulates in the body of Adam’s offspring as his blood circulates in it.”
(A sub-narrator asked Sufyan, “Did Safiya (radiallaahu `anhaa) visit him at night?” He said, “Of course, at night.”)
Volume 3, Book 33, Number 256:
Narrated Abu Said (radiallaahu `anhu):
We practiced Itikaf with Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) in the middle ten days (of Ramadan). In the morning of the twentieth (of Ramadan) we shifted our baggage, but Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) came to us and said, “Whoever was Itikaf should return to his place of Itikaf, for I saw (i.e. was informed about the date of) this Night (of Qadr) and saw myself prostrating in mud and water.” When I returned to my place the sky was overcast with clouds and it rained. By Him Who sent Muhammad (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) with the Truth, the sky was covered with clouds from the end of that day, and the mosque which was roofed with leaf-stalks of date palm trees (leaked with rain) and I saw the trace of mud and water over the nose of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) and its tip.
This Hadith explains this one narrated by Abu Hurairah (radiallaahu `anhu):
“The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to observe i’tikaaf for ten days every Ramadaan, and in the year in which he passed away he observed i’tikaaf for twenty days.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari.
And this is why I`tikaaf in the last ten days of Ramadaan is more recommended than any other time.. Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) preferred it in his last year.
But this doesn’t mean one can’t observe I`tikaaf in days other than the last ten of Ramadaan. I`tikaaf can be practiced any time of the year. Read this post for more details.
The Basic Goal of I`tikaaf (Ahadith 1737 – 1739)
Kitaab-ul-I`tikaaf [Book of Retiring to a Mosque for Remembrance of Allah] starts today..
Volume 3, Book 33, Number 242:
Narrated Abdullah bin Umar (radiallaahu `anhu):
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to practise Itikaf in the last ten days of the month of Ramadan.
Volume 3, Book 33, Number 243:
Narrated ‘Aisha (radiallaahu `anhaa):
The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to practice Itikaf in the last ten days of Ramadan till he died and then his wives used to practice Itikaf after him.
Volume 3, Book 33, Number 244:
Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri (radiallaahu `anhu):
Allah’s Apostle (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) used to practice Itikaf in the middle ten days of Ramadan and once he stayed in Itikaf till the night of the twenty-first and it was the night in the morning of which he used to come out of his Itikaf. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) said, “Whoever was in Itikaf with me should stay in Itikaf for the last ten days, for I was informed (of the date) of the Night (of Qadr) but I have been caused to forget it. (In the dream) I saw myself prostrating in mud and water in the morning of that night. So, look for it in the last ten nights and in the odd ones of them.” It rained that night and the roof of the mosque dribbled as it was made of leaf stalks of date-palms. I saw with my own eyes the mark of mud and water on the forehead of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam) (i.e. in the morning of the twenty-first).
The i’tikaaf which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) always observed at the end of his life is i’tikaaf during the last ten days of Ramadaan. These few days may indeed be regarded as an intensive course of spiritual education which brings immediate positive results in a person’s life during the days and nights of Ramadaan and in the coming days, until the next Ramadaan comes.
The basic goal of the Prophet’s i’tikaaf was to seek Laylat al-Qadr.
Muslim (1167) narrated that Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) observed i’tikaaf during the first ten days of Ramadaan, then he observed i’tikaaf during the middle ten days in a small tent at the door of which was a reed mat. He took the mat in his hand and lifted it. Then he put his head out and spoke to the people, and they came close to him. He said: “I observed i’tikaaf during the first ten days seeking this night, then I observed i’tikaaf during the middle ten days. Then someone came and said to me that it is in the last ten days, so whoever among you wishes to observe i’tikaaf let him do so.” So the people observed i’tikaaf with him.
This hadeeth teaches us a number of things:
- That the basic goal of the i’tikaaf of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was to seek Laylat al-Qadr and to prepare to spend that night in worship. That is because of the great virtue of that night of which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “The Night of Al‑Qadr (Decree) is better than a thousand months (i.e. worshipping Allaah in that night is better than worshipping Him a thousand months, i.e. 83 years and 4 months)” [al-Qadr 97:3].
- The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) strove to seek that night before he was told when it is. So he started with the first ten days, then he observed it during the middle ten, then he continued to observe i’tikaaf during the last ten days, when he was told that it is in the last ten days. This is the utmost effort to seek Laylat al-Qadr.
- The Sahaabah (may Allaah be pleased with them) followed the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), because they started i’tikaaf and continued with him until the end of the month, because they were so keen to follow his example.
- The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was compassionate towards his companions and showed mercy to them, because he knew that i’tikaaf was difficult for them. So he gave them the choice between staying with him or of leaving, and said: “…so whoever among you wishes to observe i’tikaaf let him do so.”
There are other aims of i’tikaaf as well, including the following:
- Being alone with Allaah and cutting oneself off from people if possible, so that one may focus completely on Allaah.
- Renewing oneself spiritual by focusing totally on Allaah.
- Cutting oneself off completely in order to worship Allaah with prayer, du’aa’, dhikr and reading Qur’aan.
- Protecting one’s fast from everything that may affect it of whims and desires.
- Reducing permissible worldly pleasures and refraining from many of them even though one is able to enjoy them.
Graves and Mosques (Hadith No. 1113)
Volume 2, Book 23, Number 414:
Aisha said, “The Prophet in his fatal illness said, ‘Allah cursed the Jews and the Christians because they took the graves of their Prophets as places for praying.”‘ Aisha added, “Had it not been for that the grave of the Prophet (p.b.u.h) would have been made prominent but I am afraid it might be taken (as a) place for praying.
The scholars have discussed this issue, in the past and more recently, and they refuted those who quote the fact that the grave of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) is inside his mosque as evidence that it is permissible to take graves as places of worship, or to include graves in mosques.
Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:
There is a specious argument put forward by those who worship graves, namely the fact that the grave of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) is in his mosque. The answer to that is that the Sahaabah (may Allaah be pleased with them) did not bury him in his mosque, rather they buried him in the house of ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her). When al-Waleed ibn ‘Abd al-Malik expanded the Mosque of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) at the end of the first century, he incorporated the room into the mosque, but he did wrong thereby, and some of the scholars denounced him for that, but he believed that there was nothing wrong with it for the sake of expanding the mosque.
It is not permissible for a Muslim to take that as evidence that mosques may be built over graves, or that people may be buried inside mosques, because that goes against the saheeh ahaadeeth, and because it is a means that may lead to shirk by associating the occupants of the graves in worship with Allaah. End quote.
Majmoo’ Fataawa al-Shaykh Ibn Baaz, 5/388, 389.
[Taken from IslamQA]
Read more here.
Fasting on Eid + 3 (Hadith No. 987)
This is the last Hadith from Kitaab-ut-Tahajjud [Book of Night Prayer].
Volume 2, Book 21, Number 288:
Narrated Qaza’a Maula (freed slave of Ziyad):
I heard Abu Saeed Al-Khudri narrating four things from the Prophet and I appreciated them very much. He said, conveying the words of the Prophet:
(1) “A woman should not go on a two-day journey except with her husband or a Dhi-Mahram.
(2) No fasting is permissible on two days: ‘Id-ul-Fitr and ‘Id-ul-Adha.
(3) No prayer after two prayers, i.e. after the Fajr prayer till the sunrises and after the ‘Asr prayer till the sun sets.
(4) Do not prepare yourself for a journey except to three Mosques, i.e. Al-Masjid-Al-Haram, the Mosque of Aqsa (Jerusalem) and my Mosque.”
1. Travelling of a Woman:
The saheeh Sunnah indicates that it is not permissible for a woman to travel except with a mahram. This travelling is not defined by a specific distance, as is the case with shortening the prayers or breaking the fast, rather everything that is called travelling, whether it is long or short, is not permitted for a woman unless she has a mahram with her.
Al-Bukhaari (1729) and Muslim (2391) narrated that Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “No woman should travel except with a mahram.”
The fuqaha’ are unanimously agreed that it is haraam for a woman to travel without a mahram, except in a few exceptional cases, such as travelling for the obligatory Hajj, for which some of them have permitted a women to travel with trustworthy companions. Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: al-Baghawi said: They did not differ concerning the fact that a woman may not travel for anything but the obligatory Hajj except with a husband or mahram, except a kaafir woman who becomes Muslim in daar al-harb or a female captive who escapes. Others added: or a woman who becomes separated from her group and is found by a trustworthy man, in which case it is permissible for him to accompany her until he brings her back to her group. End quote from Fath al-Baari (4/76).
Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in Sharh Saheeh Muslim, explaining that travel in this case is not defined by a specific distance:
Everything that is called travelling, it is forbidden for a woman to do without her husband or a mahram, whether it is three days, two days or one day, or anything else, because of the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas, according to which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “No woman should travel without a mahram.” This includes everything that is called travel. And Allaah knows best.
And it says in Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah (17/339): It is haraam for a woman to travel without a mahram in all cases, whether the journey is long or short. End quote.
Based on this, if going from your city to this place is regarded as travelling according to the people’s customs, then it is not permissible for you to go there without a mahram. If it is not regarded as travelling according to custom then there is nothing wrong with you going there without a mahram.
The fact that the route is filled with cities, schools and farms does not alter this ruling.
[Taken from IslamQA]
2. Fasting on Eid
Yes, it’s prohibited. Check out this link to find out more about the categories of fasts: obligatory, encouraged, disliked, forbidden and permissible.
3. Forbidden to Pray
he definition of times when voluntary prayer is forbidden varies from one country to another, and from one season to another. Hence we cannot explain what these times are by the clock for all lands and in all seasons. But we will explain the general principles which will make it easy for every Muslim to work out when these times are. Hence we say that the times when prayer is forbidden are three:
- From when dawn breaks until approximately a quarter of an hour after the sun has risen. You can find out the time of sunrise from the timetables that are available in all countries.
- Approximately a quarter of an hour before the time for Zuhr prayer begins, until the time for Zuhr begins.
- After you have prayed ‘Asr – even if it is an hour after the time for it began – until the disk of the sun has set completely. So the beginning of the time when prayer is forbidden is when one has prayed ‘Asr, not the beginning of the time for ‘Asr prayer, because the Muslim may offer ‘Asr prayer some time after the time for it begins. In that case the Muslim may offer voluntary prayers so long as he has not yet prayed ‘Asr, even if the time for ‘Asr has begun. Ibn Qudaamah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in al-Mughni (1/429): We do not know of any difference of opinion concerning that among those who say that prayer is not allowed after ‘Asr. End quote.
The evidence for these times is mentioned in several ahaadeeth, among the clearest and most comprehensive of which is the lengthy hadeeth which was narrated by Imam Muslim in his Saheeh (832) from ‘Amr ibn ‘Abasah (may Allaah be pleased with him), that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to him: “Pray Fajr, then refrain from praying until the sun has risen and become high, for when it rises, it rises between the horns of the Shaytaan and at that time the kuffaar prostrate to it. Then pray, for the prayer is witnessed and attended until the shadow of a spear falls directly north (i.e., noon). Then refrain from praying, for at that time Hell is stoked up. Then when the shadow moves forward, pray, for the prayer is witnessed and attended, until you have prayed ‘Asr. Then refrain from praying until the sun has set, for it sets between the horns of the Shaytaan and at that time the kuffaar prostrate to it.”
We should point out that what is forbidden is prayer that is purely voluntary at these times. As for prayers for which there is a reason, such as “greeting the mosque” (tahiyyat al-masjid) or the two rak’ahs after wudoo’ or the two rak’ahs after tawaaf and so on, they may be offered at any time according to the more correct of the two scholarly opinions.
[Taken from IslamQA]
4. The 3 Special Mosques
Read this post.
About Masjid Quba (Ahadith 982 – 984)
Volume 2, Book 21, Number 283:
Ibn ‘Umar never offered the Duha prayer except on two occasions:
(1) Whenever he reached Mecca; and he always used to reach Mecca in the forenoon. He would perform Tawaf round the Ka’ba and then offer two Rakat at the rear of Maqam Ibrahim.
(2) Whenever he visited Quba, for he used to visit it every Saturday. When he entered the Mosque, he disliked to leave it without offering a prayer. Ibn ‘Umar narrated that Allah’s Apostle used to visit the Mosque of Quba (sometime) walking and (sometime) riding. And he (i.e. Ibn ‘Umar) used to say, “I do only what my companions used to do and I don’t forbid anybody to pray at any time during the day or night except that one should not intend to pray at sunrise or sunset.”
Volume 2, Book 21, Number 284:
Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Dinar:
Ibn ‘Umar said, “The Prophet used to go to the Mosque of Quba every Saturday (sometimes) walking and (sometimes) riding.” ‘Abdullah (Ibn ‘Umar) used to do the same.
Volume 2, Book 21, Number 285:
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:
The Prophet used to go to the Mosque of Quba (sometimes) walking and sometimes riding. Added Nafi (in another narration), “He then would offer two Rakat (in the Mosque of Quba).”
Al-Tirmidhi (324) narrated from Usayd ibn Zuhayr al-Ansaari, who was one of the companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
Prayer in the mosque of Quba’ is like ‘Umrah.
Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi.
Al-Nasaa’i (699) narrated that Sahl ibn Hunayf said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
Whoever goes out to this mosque, the mosque of Quba’, and prays therein, will have (a reward) like that of ‘umrah.
Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Nasaa’i.
So when you have the opportunity to visit Masjid Quba, do so. And pray two nawafil there. (y)
Is it necessary to visit Masjid Quba during Hajj or Umrah? Read this for the answer.